Our review focuses on biomimetic and bioinspired ideas to improve enzyme-driven bioelectrochemical systems for applications in energy, biomedical and environmental fields.
Biomimetic and bioinspired approaches to redox enzyme wiring involve borrowing structures and strategies found in biological electron transfer systems for use in engineered devices. Redox protein–electrode systems are evolving for several applications, including energy, biomedical and environmental purposes. This review is intended to be both “tutorial” and comprehensive in that we provide a guide to understand, design, and improve electrode interfaces for redox enzyme electron transfer processes in devices. The review examines electrode interfaces by directly comparing them with biological electron transfer systems. First, the mechanisms, theory, and structures for electron transfer in biological systems are provided, followed by analysis of the strategies and structures engineered in redox-protein devices. The review describes the challenges of constructing and applying redox enzyme devices, including the poor electrical contact between electrodes and enzymes and low lifetime and scalability of devices.