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      Fast deliberation is related to unconditional behaviour in iterated Prisoners’ Dilemma experiments

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          Abstract

          People have different preferences for what they allocate for themselves and what they allocate to others in social dilemmas. These differences result from contextual reasons, intrinsic values, and social expectations. What is still an area of debate is whether these differences can be estimated from differences in each individual’s deliberation process. In this work, we analyse the participants’ reaction times in three different experiments of the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma with the Drift Diffusion Model, which links response times to the perceived difficulty of the decision task, the rate of accumulation of information (deliberation), and the intuitive attitudes towards the choices. The correlation between these results and the attitude of the participants towards the allocation of resources is then determined. We observe that individuals who allocated resources equally are correlated with more deliberation than highly cooperative or highly defective participants, who accumulate evidence more quickly to reach a decision. Also, the evidence collection is faster in fixed neighbour settings than in shuffled ones. Consequently, fast decisions do not distinguish cooperators from defectors in these experiments, but appear to separate those that are more reactive to the behaviour of others from those that act categorically.

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          Most cited references49

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          A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation

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            A theory of memory retrieval.

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              Evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in structured heterogeneous populations.

              Real populations have been shown to be heterogeneous, in which some individuals have many more contacts than others. This fact contrasts with the traditional homogeneous setting used in studies of evolutionary game dynamics. We incorporate heterogeneity in the population by studying games on graphs, in which the variability in connectivity ranges from single-scale graphs, for which heterogeneity is small and associated degree distributions exhibit a Gaussian tale, to scale-free graphs, for which heterogeneity is large with degree distributions exhibiting a power-law behavior. We study the evolution of cooperation, modeled in terms of the most popular dilemmas of cooperation. We show that, for all dilemmas, increasing heterogeneity favors the emergence of cooperation, such that long-term cooperative behavior easily resists short-term noncooperative behavior. Moreover, we show how cooperation depends on the intricate ties between individuals in scale-free populations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                eladio.montero@vub.be
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                24 November 2022
                24 November 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 20287
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.8767.e, ISNI 0000 0001 2290 8069, AI Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, ; Brussels, Belgium
                [2 ]GRID grid.4989.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2348 0746, MLG, Université Libre de Bruxelles, ; Brussels, Belgium
                [3 ]GRID grid.47840.3f, ISNI 0000 0001 2181 7878, Center for Human-Compatible AI, , UC Berkeley, ; Berkeley, 94702 USA
                [4 ]GRID grid.4989.c, ISNI 0000 0001 2348 0746, FARI Institute, , Université Libre de Bruxelles-Vrije Universiteit Brussel, ; 1050 Brussels, Belgium
                [5 ]GRID grid.11469.3b, ISNI 0000 0000 9780 0901, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, ; Trento, Italy
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2380-8630
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8088-1973
                Article
                24849
                10.1038/s41598-022-24849-4
                9700794
                480acaab-3918-41be-bd47-081fd08380ce
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 19 September 2022
                : 21 November 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef 501100003130, Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Research Foundation Flanders);
                Award ID: 952215
                Award ID: G.0391.13N
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef 501100002661, Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS (Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research);
                Award ID: 31257234
                Award ID: 40007793
                Funded by: FundRef 501100009595, Service Public de Wallonie (Public Services Department of the Walloon Government);
                Award ID: 2010235-ARIAC
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef 501100009890, Provincia Autonoma di Trento (Autonomous Province of Trento);
                Funded by: FundRef 501100003130, Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Research Foundation Flanders);
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                human behaviour,social behaviour
                Uncategorized
                human behaviour, social behaviour

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