In oviparous animals, the egg contains all resources required for embryonic development. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a placenta-like structure produced by the embryo for acid-base balance, respiration, and calcium solubilization from the eggshell for bone mineralization. The CAM is a valuable in vivo model in cancer research for development of drug delivery systems and has been used to study tissue grafts, tumor metastasis, toxicology, angiogenesis, and assessment of bacterial invasion. However, the protein constituents involved in different CAM functions are poorly understood. Therefore, we have characterized the CAM proteome at two stages of development (ED12 and ED19) and assessed the contribution of the embryonic blood serum (EBS) proteome to identify CAM-unique proteins. LC/MS/MS-based proteomics allowed the identification of 1470, 1445, and 791 proteins in CAM (ED12), CAM (ED19), and EBS, respectively. In total, 1796 unique proteins were identified. Of these, 175 (ED12), 177 (ED19), and 105 (EBS) were specific to these stages/compartments. This study attributed specific CAM protein constituents to functions such as calcium ion transport, gas exchange, vasculature development, and chemical protection against invading pathogens. Defining the complex nature of the CAM proteome provides a crucial basis to expand its biomedical applications for pharmaceutical and cancer research.