6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Auditory Steady State Response; nature and utility as a translational science tool

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been used to detect auditory processing deficits in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, the methodology of ASSR recording from the brain surface has not been standardized in preclinical studies, limiting its use as a translational biomarker. The sites of maximal ASSR in humans are the vertex and/or middle frontal area, although it has been suggested that the auditory cortex is the source of the ASSR. We constructed and validated novel methods for ASSR recording using a switchable pedestal which allows ASSR recording alternatively from temporal or parietal cortex with a wide range of frequencies in freely moving rats. We further evaluated ASSR as a translational tool by assessing the effect of ketamine. The ASSR measured at parietal cortex did not show clear event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) or inter-trial coherence (ITC) in any frequency bands or a change with ketamine. In contrast, the ASSR at temporal cortex showed clear ERSP and ITC where 40 Hz was maximal in both gamma-band frequencies. Ketamine exerted a biphasic effect in ERSP at gamma bands. These findings suggest that temporal cortex recording with a wide frequency range is a robust methodology to detect ASSR, potentially enabling application as a translational biomarker in psychiatric and developmental disorders.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 37

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Gene expression deficits in a subclass of GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

          Markers of inhibitory neurotransmission are altered in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia, and several lines of evidence suggest that these alterations may be most prominent in the subset of GABA-containing neurons that express the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the expression of mRNAs for PV, another calcium-binding protein, calretinin (CR), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) in postmortem brain specimens from 15 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia and matched control subjects using single- and dual-label in situ hybridization. Signal intensity for PV mRNA expression in PFC area 9 was significantly decreased in the subjects with schizophrenia, predominantly in layers III and IV. Analysis at the cellular level revealed that this decrease was attributable principally to a reduction in PV mRNA expression per neuron rather than by a decreased density of PV mRNA-positive neurons. In contrast, the same measures of CR mRNA expression were not altered in schizophrenia. These findings were confirmed by findings from cDNA microarray studies using different probes. Across the subjects with schizophrenia, the decrease in neuronal PV mRNA expression was highly associated (r = 0.84) with the decrease in the density of neurons containing detectable levels of GAD67 mRNA. Furthermore, simultaneous detection of PV and GAD67 mRNAs revealed that in subjects with schizophrenia only 55% of PV mRNA-positive neurons had detectable levels of GAD67 mRNA. Given the critical role that PV-containing GABA neurons appear to play in regulating the cognitive functions mediated by the PFC, the selective alterations in gene expression in these neurons may contribute to the cognitive deficits characteristic of schizophrenia.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Impairments in frontal cortical gamma synchrony and cognitive control in schizophrenia.

            A critical component of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia can be characterized as a disturbance in cognitive control, or the ability to guide and adjust cognitive processes and behavior flexibly in accordance with one's intentions and goals. Cognitive control impairments in schizophrenia are consistently linked to specific disturbances in prefrontal cortical functioning, but the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms are not yet well characterized. Synchronous gamma-band oscillations have been associated with a wide range of perceptual and cognitive processes, raising the possibility that they may also help entrain prefrontal cortical circuits in the service of cognitive control processes. In the present study, we measured induced gamma-band activity during a task that reliably engages cognitive control processes in association with prefrontal cortical activations in imaging studies. We found that higher cognitive control demands were associated with increases in induced gamma-band activity in the prefrontal areas of healthy subjects but that control-related modulation of prefrontal gamma-band activity was absent in schizophrenia subjects. Disturbances in gamma-band activity in patients correlated with illness symptoms, and gamma-band activity correlated positively with performance in control subjects but not in schizophrenia patients. Our findings may provide a link between previously reported postmortem abnormalities in thalamofrontocortical circuitry and alterations in prefrontal activity observed in functional neuroimaging studies. They also suggest that deficits in frontal cortical gamma-band synchrony may contribute to the cognitive control impairments in schizophrenia.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Gamma-band auditory steady-state responses are impaired in first episode psychosis.

              In chronic schizophrenia and chronic bipolar disorder, gamma band (30-100 Hz) auditory steady-state electroencephalogram responses (ASSRs) are reduced in power and phase locking, likely reflecting neural circuit dysfunction. Here we examined whether gamma ASSR deficits are also present at first hospitalization for psychosis. Subjects were 16 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 16 first episode affective disorder patients (AFF) (13 with bipolar disorder), and 33 healthy control subjects (HC). Stimuli were 20-, 30-, and 40-Hz binaural click trains. The ASSR phase locking and evoked power were analyzed with the Morlet wavelet transform. At 40-Hz stimulation, SZ and AFF had significantly reduced phase locking compared with HC. This deficit was more pronounced over the left hemisphere in SZ. Evoked power at 40 Hz was also reduced in the patients compared with HC. At 30-Hz stimulation phase locking and evoked power were reduced in both patient groups. The 20-Hz ASSR did not differ between groups, but phase locking and evoked power of the 40-Hz harmonic of the 20-Hz ASSR were reduced in both SZ and AFF. Phase locking of this 40-Hz harmonic was correlated with total positive symptoms in SZ. The gamma ASSR deficit is present at first hospitalization for both schizophrenia and affective disorder but shows a left hemisphere bias in first hospitalized SZ. Some of the neural circuitry abnormalities underlying the gamma ASSR deficit might be common to psychoses in general, whereas others might be specific to particular disorders.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                takuma.mihara@astellas.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                11 June 2019
                11 June 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.418042.b, Candidate Discovery Science Labs., , Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., ; 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, 305-8585 Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, , The University of Tokyo, ; 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655 Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, International Research Center for Neurointelligence (WPI-IRCN), UTIAS, , The University of Tokyo, ; 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0291 3581, GRID grid.267500.6, Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, , University of Yamanashi, ; 1110 Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898 Japan
                Article
                44936
                10.1038/s41598-019-44936-3
                6560088
                31186500
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized

                predictive markers, schizophrenia, sensory processing

                Comments

                Comment on this article