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      Sublethal and transgenerational effects of synthetic insecticides on the biological parameters and functional response of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under laboratory conditions


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          Synthetic insecticides have been an inevitable part of plant protection throughout the world. Sublethal effects of these chemicals on beneficial insect species are one of the contemporary issues these days. Using the age-stage, two-sex life table model, this study evaluated the sublethal and transgenerational effects of six synthetic insecticides (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and profenofos) commonly applied to winter vegetables, on the fitness and predation of the seven-spotted ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata, which is an efficient predator of aphids worldwide. According to results, all insecticides at their sublethal doses (LC 30) significantly suppressed the emergence of adults, adult weight, fertility and fecundity of the parental generation compared to control treatment. The larval stage was prolonged and oviposition, fecundity and total longevity of the adult beetles were decreased in unexposed progeny whose parents were exposed to sublethal doses of all insecticides. Moreover, the biological parameters of adults, including the intrinsic rate of increase ( r), finite rate of increase ( λ) and net reproductive rate ( R 0) were significantly reduced when exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. The predation rate of the F 1 generation adults was also decreased after exposure to the sublethal doses of insecticides. However, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin exhibited more deleterious effects on the fitness and population parameters of beetles than imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

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          The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods.

          Traditionally, measurement of the acute toxicity of pesticides to beneficial arthropods has relied largely on the determination of an acute median lethal dose or concentration. However, the estimated lethal dose during acute toxicity tests may only be a partial measure of the deleterious effects. In addition to direct mortality induced by pesticides, their sublethal effects on arthropod physiology and behavior must be considered for a complete analysis of their impact. An increasing number of studies and methods related to the identification and characterization of these effects have been published in the past 15 years. Review of sublethal effects reported in published literature, taking into account recent data, has revealed new insights into the sublethal effects of pesticides including effects on learning performance, behavior, and neurophysiology. We characterize the different types of sublethal effects on beneficial arthropods, focusing mainly on honey bees and natural enemies, and we describe the methods used in these studies. Finally, we discuss the potential for developing experimental approaches that take into account these sublethal effects in integrated pest management and the possibility of integrating their evaluation in pesticide registration procedures.
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            Life-Table Analysis Incorporating Both Sexes and Variable Development Rates Among Individuals

            H-S Chi (1988)
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              Lethal effect of imidacloprid on the coccinellid predator Serangium japonicum and sublethal effects on predator voracity and on functional response to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

              Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for controlling sucking pests, and sublethal effects can be expected in beneficial arthropods like natural enemies. Serangium japonicum is an important predator in many agricultural systems in China, and a potential biological control agent against Bemisia tabaci. We evaluated the toxicity of imidacloprid to S. japonicum and its impact on the functional response to B. tabaci eggs. S. japonicum adults exposed through contact to dried residues of imidacloprid at the recommended field rate on cotton against B. tabaci (4 g active ingredient per 100 l, i.e. 40 ppm [part per million]), and reduced rates (25, 20, 15 and 10 ppm) for 24 h showed high mortality rates. The mortality induced by a lowest rate, 5 ppm, was not significantly different than the control group and thus it was considered as a sublethal rate. The lethal rate 50 and hazard quotient (HQ) were estimated to be 11.54 ppm and 3.47 respectively, indicating a risk for S. japonicum in treated fields (HQ > 2). When exposed to dried residues of imidacloprid at the sublethal rate (5 ppm) on cotton leaves, functional response of S. japonicum to B. tabaci eggs was affected with an increase in handling time and a reduction in peak consumption of eggs. Imidacloprid residues also disturbed predator voracity, the number of B. tabaci eggs consumed on treated leaves being significantly lower than on untreated leaves. All effects disappeared within a few hours after transfer to untreated cotton leaves. Imidacloprid systemically applied at the recommended field rate (for cotton) showed no toxicity to S. japonicum, nor affected the functional response of the predator. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on S. japonicum observed in our study likely negatively affect S. japonicum development and reproductive capacity and may ultimately reduce predator population growth. These results hint at the importance of assessing potential effects of imidacloprid on S. japonicum for developing effective integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci in China.

                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                16 January 2023
                : 14
                : 1088712
                [1] 1 Department of Entomology , College of Agriculture , University of Sargodha , Sargodha, Pakistan
                [2] 2 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization , Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization , Institute of Zoology , Guangdong Academy of Sciences , Guangzhou, China
                [3] 3 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology , The University of Lahore , 1-Km Defense Road , Lahore, Pakistan
                [4] 4 Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management , Institute of Entomology , Ministry of Agriculture , Guizhou University , Guiyang, China
                [5] 5 Honeybee Research Institute , National Agricultural Research Centre , Park Road , Islamabad, Pakistan
                [6] 6 Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology , University of Delaware , Newark, DE, United States
                [7] 7 University of the Sunshine Coast , Maroochydore, QLD, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Asad Ali, Abdul Wali Khan University, Pakistan

                Reviewed by: Waqar Jaleel, Central Cotton Research Institute (CCRI), Pakistan

                Ran Wang, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China

                [ † ]

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Invertebrate Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2023 Afza, Afzal, Riaz, Majeed, Idrees, Qadir, Afzal, Hassan and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 03 November 2022
                : 04 January 2023
                Funded by: Special Project for Research and Development in Key Areas of Guangdong Province , doi 10.13039/501100015956;
                Award ID: 2020GDASYL-20200301003
                Funded by: Guangdong Academy of Sciences , doi 10.13039/501100009075;
                Award ID: 2020B020223004
                This research work was financially supported by the GDAS Special Project of Science and Technology Development (No. 2020GDASYL-20200301003), GDAS Action Capital Project to build a comprehensive industrial technology innovation Center (No. 2022GDASZH-2022010106). Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) (Project No. NRPU-11326).
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology
                coccinellid beetles,seven-spotted lady beetle,synthetic insecticides,sublethal exposure,life parameters,functional response


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