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      Risk factors for injury in a national cohort of 87,134 Thai adults

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          Information is needed regarding risk factors associated with injury. In middle- and lower-income countries, injury studies have focused on road traffic injuries and less attention has been given to other types of injuries.


          This study is part of overarching health–risk transition research in Thailand with a large national cohort study that began in 2005 ( n = 87,134). Associations between potential determinants and overall injury were measured, as well as injury by location (transport, home, work and sport), using data gathered from the baseline questionnaire.


          In total, 21.5% of the cohort reported at least one incidence of injury over the last 12 months. Risk factors associated with injury were being male [odds ratio (OR) 1.20], having lower income (OR 1.70), having problems with vision (OR 1.46), having epilepsy (OR 3.02), having depression/anxiety (OR 1.62), poor self-assessed health (OR 1.68), being obese (OR 1.24) and death of father due to injury (OR 1.59). Analysis of injury by location provided more specific information on risk factors. For example, females were more likely to report injuries at home, while males, urban residents and regular alcohol drinkers were more likely to report transport injuries.


          The risk of injury in Thailand varies considerably by location, sociodemographic group and several categories of co-existing morbidities. Such epidemiological information identifying risk factors for injury is useful for designing targeted injury prevention programmes in Thailand and other middle-income countries.

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          Most cited references 41

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          The global burden of injuries.

          The traditional view of injuries as "accidents", or random events, has resulted in the historical neglect of this area of public health. However, the most recent estimates show that injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in the world. They affect all populations, regardless of age, sex, income, or geographic region. In 1998, about 5.8 million people (97.9 per 100,000 population) died of injuries worldwide, and injuries caused 16% of the global burden of disease. Road traffic injuries are the 10th leading cause of death and the 9th leading cause of the burden of disease; self-inflicted injuries, falls, and interpersonal violence follow closely. Injuries affect mostly young people, often causing long-term disability. Decreasing the burden of injuries is among the main challenges for public health in the next century--injuries are preventable, and many effective strategies are available. Public health officials must gain a better understanding of the magnitude and characteristics of the problem, contribute to the development and evaluation of injury prevention programs, and develop the best possible prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for injured persons.
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            The neglected epidemic: road traffic injuries in developing countries.

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              The global burden of unintentional injuries and an agenda for progress.

              According to the World Health Organization, unintentional injuries were responsible for over 3.9 million deaths and over 138 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2004, with over 90% of those occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper utilizes the year 2004 World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease Study estimates to illustrate the global and regional burden of unintentional injuries and injury rates, stratified by cause, region, age, and gender. The worldwide rate of unintentional injuries is 61 per 100,000 population per year. Overall, road traffic injuries make up the largest proportion of unintentional injury deaths (33%). When standardized per 100,000 population, the death rate is nearly double in LMIC versus high-income countries (65 vs. 35 per 100,000), and the rate of disability-adjusted life-years is more than triple in LMIC (2,398 vs. 774 per 100,000). This paper calls for more action around 5 core areas that need research investments and capacity development, particularly in LMIC: 1) improving injury data collection, 2) defining the epidemiology of unintentional injuries, 3) estimating the costs of injuries, 4) understanding public perceptions about injury causation, and 5) engaging with policy makers to improve injury prevention and control.

                Author and article information

                Public Health
                Public Health
                Public Health
                January 2012
                January 2012
                : 126
                : 1-2
                : 33-39
                [a ]National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
                [b ]Monash University Accident Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
                [c ]School of Human Ecology, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Nonthaburi, Thailand
                [d ]School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
                Author notes
                [] Corresponding author. National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, Building 62, Acton 2601, Canberra, Australia. Tel.: +61 2 6125 2378; fax: +61 2 6125 0740. vasoontara.yieng@ vasoontara.yieng@
                © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

                This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions.

                Original Research

                Public health

                risk factors, home injury, transport injury, work injury, sport injury, thailand


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