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      Cherry Extract from Prunus avium L. to Improve the Resistance of Endothelial Cells to Oxidative Stress: Mucoadhesive Chitosan vs. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) Nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Polyphenolic compounds contained in cherry extract (CE) are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Unfortunately, most of these natural compounds have low oral bioavailability, reducing their widespread use. Here, different concentrations of polyphenol-rich CE from Tuscany (Italy), encapsulated in poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), were compared with those encapsulated in two NP types, different from each other in terms of mucoadhesivity, obtained with chitosan derivatives (Ch-der), regarding CE gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and protective effect on oxidative stress. Different NP systems were physico-chemically characterized, and the antioxidant GI permeability was evaluated in a triple-cell co-culture model (Caco-2/HT29-MTX/Raji B), resembling the intestine. PLGA NPs efficiently entrapped CE (up to 840 µg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mL) without altering size (210 nm), polydispersity index (0.05), or zeta potential (−10.7 mV). Such NPs promoted permeation of encapsulated CE at a CE polyphenolic concentration of at least 2 µg GAE/mL. More mucoadhesive NPs from Ch-der, coded quaternary ammonium S-protected thiolated chitosan (QA-Ch-S-pro) NP, promoted CE GI permeation of 0.5 µg GAE/mL. At higher concentrations of Ch-der polymers, the resulting NPs containing CE were toxic toward Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells. CE protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from oxidative stress and maintained its activity when entrapped in PLGA NPs. CE encapsulated in QA-Ch-S-pro NP protected HUVECs from oxidative stress, even more effectively than non-encapsulated CE. Furthermore, mucoadhesive NPs from Ch-der were more effective antioxidant protectors than PLGA NPs, but less cytotoxic PLGA NPs could be more useful when comparatively high therapeutic antioxidant doses are needed.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Antioxidant properties of catechins: Comparison with other antioxidants

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            Cherry Antioxidants: From Farm to Table

            The dietary consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds found in vegetable products. Sweet and sour cherries contain several antioxidants and polyphenols that possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation properties. The review describes the effect of environment and other factors (such as production, handling and storage) on the nutritional properties of cherries, with particular attention to polyphenol compounds. Moreover the health benefits of cherries and their polyphenols against human diseases such as heart disease, cancers, diabetes are reviewed.
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              Sugars, organic acids, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                10 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 20
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy; denisebeconcini@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, via Bonanno 33, 56100 Pisa, Italy; angela.fabiano@ 123456unipi.it
                [3 ]Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Medical, Molecular, and Critical Area Pathology, University of Pisa, via Paradisa 2, 56100 Pisa, Italy; rossella.distefano@ 123456unipi.it (R.D.S.); francesca.felice77@ 123456hotmail.it (F.F.)
                [4 ]Interdepartmental Research Center Nutraceuticals and Food for Health, University of Pisa, via Borghetto 80, 56100 Pisa, Italy
                [5 ]i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-153 Porto, Portugal; helena.macedo@ 123456i3s.up.pt (M.H.M.); bruno.sarmento@ 123456ineb.up.pt (B.S.)
                [6 ]INEB—Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
                [7 ]ICBAS—Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
                [8 ]CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ylenia.zambito@ 123456unipi.it ; Tel.: +39-50-2219-657
                Article
                ijms-20-01759
                10.3390/ijms20071759
                6480209
                30974730
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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