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      Oxidation During Digestion of Meat: Interactions with the Diet andHelicobacter pyloriGastritis, and Implications on Human Health : Meat consumption and oxidative stress. . .

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      Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis.

          The relation between consumption of different types of red meats and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains uncertain. We evaluated the association between unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and incident T2D in US adults. We followed 37,083 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2006), 79,570 women in the Nurses' Health Study I (1980-2008), and 87,504 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. During 4,033,322 person-years of follow-up, we documented 13,759 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for age, BMI, and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, both unprocessed and processed red meat intakes were positively associated with T2D risk in each cohort (all P-trend <0.001). The pooled HRs (95% CIs) for a one serving/d increase in unprocessed, processed, and total red meat consumption were 1.12 (1.08, 1.16), 1.32 (1.25, 1.40), and 1.14 (1.10, 1.18), respectively. The results were confirmed by a meta-analysis (442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases): the RRs (95% CIs) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) and 1.51 (1.25, 1.83) for 100 g unprocessed red meat/d and for 50 g processed red meat/d, respectively. We estimated that substitutions of one serving of nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains per day for one serving of red meat per day were associated with a 16-35% lower risk of T2D. Our results suggest that red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of T2D.
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            Vascular oxidative stress, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis.

            In the vascular wall, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by several enzyme systems including NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. On the other hand, the vasculature is protected by antioxidant enzyme systems, including superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases and paraoxonases, which detoxify ROS. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus enhance ROS generation, resulting in oxidative stress. This leads to oxidative modification of lipoproteins and phospholipids, mechanisms that contribute to atherogenesis. In addition, oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin may cause eNOS uncoupling and thus potentiation of oxidative stress and reduction of eNOS-derived NO, which is a protective principle in the vasculature. This review summarizes the latest advances in the role of ROS-producing enzymes, antioxidative enzymes as well as NO synthases in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Oxidative stress and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease: an epiphenomenon or the cause?

              Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are fairly common chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the exact etiology of IBD remains uncertain, dysfunctional immunoregulation of the gut is believed to be the main culprit. Amongst the immunoregulatory factors, reactive oxygen species are produced in abnormally high levels in IBD. Their destructive effects may contribute to the initiation and/or propagation of the disease. We provided an extensive overview on the evidences from animal and human literature linking oxidative stress to IBD and its activity. Moreover, the effects of antioxidant therapy on IBD patients in randomized, controlled trials were reviewed and the need for further studies elaborated. We also summarized the evidence in support for causality of oxidative stress in IBD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
                COMPREHENSIVE REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND FOOD SAFETY
                Wiley-Blackwell
                15414337
                March 2017
                March 2017
                : 16
                : 2
                : 214-233
                Article
                10.1111/1541-4337.12248
                482d5f45-7ed1-4357-be33-43aa237085f5
                © 2017

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