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      In vitro antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the compound K-rich fraction BIOGF1K, prepared from Panax ginseng

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          Abstract

          Background

          BIOGF1K, a compound K-rich fraction prepared from the root of Panax ginseng, is widely used for cosmetic purposes in Korea. We investigated the functional mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of BIOGF1K by discovering target enzymes through various molecular studies.

          Methods

          We explored the inhibitory mechanisms of BIOGF1K using lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses, reporter gene assays involving overexpression of toll-like receptor adaptor molecules, and immunoblotting analysis. We used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to measure the antioxidative activity. We cotransfected adaptor molecules, including the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll/interleukin-receptor domain containing adaptor molecule-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), to measure the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3).

          Results

          BIOGF1K suppressed lipopolysaccharide-triggered NO release in macrophages as well as DPPH-induced electron-donating activity. It also blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of interferon-β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, BIOGF1K diminished the translocation and activation of IRF3 and NF-κB (p50 and p65). This extract inhibited the upregulation of NF-κB-linked luciferase activity provoked by phorbal-12-myristate-13 acetate as well as MyD88, TRIF, and inhibitor of κB (IκBα) kinase (IKKβ), and IRF3-mediated luciferase activity induced by TRIF and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Finally, BIOGF1K downregulated the NF-κB pathway by blocking IKKβ and the IRF3 pathway by inhibiting TBK1, according to reporter gene assays, immunoblotting analysis, and an AKT/IKKβ/TBK1 overexpression strategy.

          Conclusion

          Overall, our data suggest that the suppression of IKKβ and TBK1, which mediate transcriptional regulation of NF-κB and IRF3, respectively, may contribute to the broad-spectrum inhibitory activity of BIOGF1K.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus.

          The innate immune system contributes to the earliest phase of the host defense against foreign organisms and has both soluble and cellular pattern recognition receptors for microbial products. Two important members of this receptor group, CD14 and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pattern recognition receptors, are essential for the innate immune response to components of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria, spirochetes and yeast. We now find that these receptors function in an antiviral response as well. The innate immune response to the fusion protein of an important respiratory pathogen of humans, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), was mediated by TLR4 and CD14. RSV persisted longer in the lungs of infected TLR4-deficient mice compared to normal mice. Thus, a common receptor activation pathway can initiate innate immune responses to both bacterial and viral pathogens.
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              The role of antioxidants in nutrition is an area of increasing interest. Antioxidants are used (1) to prolong the shelf life and maintain the nutritional quality of lipid-containing foods, and (2) to modulate the consequences of oxidative damage in the human body. This review discusses what an antioxidant is and how the properties of antioxidants may be characterized.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Ginseng Res
                J Ginseng Res
                Journal of Ginseng Research
                Elsevier
                1226-8453
                2093-4947
                06 January 2016
                January 2017
                06 January 2016
                : 41
                : 1
                : 43-51
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Animal Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
                [3 ]Heritage Material Research Team, Amorepacific R&D Unit, Yongin, Korea
                [4 ]Bio-inspired Aerospace Information Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Information Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Jae Youl Cho, Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Suwon 16419, Korea. jaecho@ 123456skku.edu
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Junseong Park, Heritage Material Research Team, Amorepacific R&D Unit, 1920 Yonggu-daero, Yongin 17074, Korea. superbody@ 123456amorepacific.com
                [☆]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S1226-8453(15)00133-5
                10.1016/j.jgr.2015.12.009
                5223069
                Copyright © 2016, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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                Research Article

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