Muhammad Jahangir Hossen 1 , 2 , ☆ , Yong Deog Hong 3 , ☆ , Kwang-Soo Baek 1 , Sulgi Yoo 1 , Yo Han Hong 1 , Ji Hye Kim 1 , Jeong-Oog Lee 4 , Donghyun Kim 3 , Junseong Park 3 , ∗∗ , Jae Youl Cho 1 , ∗
06 January 2016
BIOGF1K, a compound K-rich fraction prepared from the root of Panax ginseng, is widely used for cosmetic purposes in Korea. We investigated the functional mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of BIOGF1K by discovering target enzymes through various molecular studies.
We explored the inhibitory mechanisms of BIOGF1K using lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses, reporter gene assays involving overexpression of toll-like receptor adaptor molecules, and immunoblotting analysis. We used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to measure the antioxidative activity. We cotransfected adaptor molecules, including the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll/interleukin-receptor domain containing adaptor molecule-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), to measure the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3).
BIOGF1K suppressed lipopolysaccharide-triggered NO release in macrophages as well as DPPH-induced electron-donating activity. It also blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of interferon-β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, BIOGF1K diminished the translocation and activation of IRF3 and NF-κB (p50 and p65). This extract inhibited the upregulation of NF-κB-linked luciferase activity provoked by phorbal-12-myristate-13 acetate as well as MyD88, TRIF, and inhibitor of κB (IκBα) kinase (IKKβ), and IRF3-mediated luciferase activity induced by TRIF and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Finally, BIOGF1K downregulated the NF-κB pathway by blocking IKKβ and the IRF3 pathway by inhibiting TBK1, according to reporter gene assays, immunoblotting analysis, and an AKT/IKKβ/TBK1 overexpression strategy.