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      In vitro antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the compound K-rich fraction BIOGF1K, prepared from Panax ginseng

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          BIOGF1K, a compound K-rich fraction prepared from the root of Panax ginseng, is widely used for cosmetic purposes in Korea. We investigated the functional mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of BIOGF1K by discovering target enzymes through various molecular studies.


          We explored the inhibitory mechanisms of BIOGF1K using lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses, reporter gene assays involving overexpression of toll-like receptor adaptor molecules, and immunoblotting analysis. We used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to measure the antioxidative activity. We cotransfected adaptor molecules, including the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and Toll/interleukin-receptor domain containing adaptor molecule-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), to measure the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3).


          BIOGF1K suppressed lipopolysaccharide-triggered NO release in macrophages as well as DPPH-induced electron-donating activity. It also blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of interferon-β and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, BIOGF1K diminished the translocation and activation of IRF3 and NF-κB (p50 and p65). This extract inhibited the upregulation of NF-κB-linked luciferase activity provoked by phorbal-12-myristate-13 acetate as well as MyD88, TRIF, and inhibitor of κB (IκBα) kinase (IKKβ), and IRF3-mediated luciferase activity induced by TRIF and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Finally, BIOGF1K downregulated the NF-κB pathway by blocking IKKβ and the IRF3 pathway by inhibiting TBK1, according to reporter gene assays, immunoblotting analysis, and an AKT/IKKβ/TBK1 overexpression strategy.


          Overall, our data suggest that the suppression of IKKβ and TBK1, which mediate transcriptional regulation of NF-κB and IRF3, respectively, may contribute to the broad-spectrum inhibitory activity of BIOGF1K.

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                Author and article information

                J Ginseng Res
                J Ginseng Res
                Journal of Ginseng Research
                06 January 2016
                January 2017
                06 January 2016
                : 41
                : 1
                : 43-51
                [1 ]Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Animal Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh
                [3 ]Heritage Material Research Team, Amorepacific R&D Unit, Yongin, Korea
                [4 ]Bio-inspired Aerospace Information Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Information Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Jae Youl Cho, Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Suwon 16419, Korea. jaecho@ 123456skku.edu
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Junseong Park, Heritage Material Research Team, Amorepacific R&D Unit, 1920 Yonggu-daero, Yongin 17074, Korea. superbody@ 123456amorepacific.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2016, The Korean Society of Ginseng, Published by Elsevier.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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