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      Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder co-occurrence increases the risk of Internet addiction in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


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          The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in a clinical sample of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to detect the moderating effects of co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) on the association between ADHD and IA.


          The study group comprised 119 adolescent subjects who were consecutively referred to our outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of ADHD. The Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S) was completed by parents, and subjects were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS).


          The IAS results indicated that 63.9% of the participants ( n = 76) fell into the IA group. Degree of IA was correlated with hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms but not with inattention symptoms. As compared to the ADHD-only group (without comorbid ODD/CD), ADHD + ODD/CD subjects returned significantly higher scores on the IAS.


          As adolescents with ADHD are at high risk of developing IA, early IA detection and intervention is of great importance for this group. In addition, adolescents with ADHD + ODD/CD may be more vulnerable to IA than those in the ADHD-only group and may need to be more carefully assessed for IA.

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          Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

          This practice parameter describes the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the current scientific evidence and clinical consensus of experts in the field. This parameter discusses the clinical evaluation for ADHD, comorbid conditions associated with ADHD, research on the etiology of the disorder, and psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions for ADHD.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences

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              The association between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: a meta-analysis

              Background This study evaluates the association between Internal Addiction (IA) and psychiatric co-morbidity in the literature. Methods Meta-analyses were conducted on cross-sectional, case–control and cohort studies which examined the relationship between IA and psychiatric co-morbidity. Selected studies were extracted from major online databases. The inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) studies conducted on human subjects; 2) IA and psychiatric co-morbidity were assessed by standardised questionnaires; and 3) availability of adequate information to calculate the effect size. Random-effects models were used to calculate the aggregate prevalence and the pooled odds ratios (OR). Results Eight studies comprising 1641 patients suffering from IA and 11210 controls were included. Our analyses demonstrated a significant and positive association between IA and alcohol abuse (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.14-4.37, z = 6.12, P < 0.001), attention deficit and hyperactivity (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 2.15-3.77, z = 7.27, P < 0.001), depression (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 2.04-3.75, z = 6.55, P < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.46-4.97, z = 3.18, P = 0.001). Conclusions IA is significantly associated with alcohol abuse, attention deficit and hyperactivity, depression and anxiety.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                05 June 2018
                June 2018
                : 7
                : 2
                : 284-291
                [ 1 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders , Istanbul, Turkey
                [ 2 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital , Izmir, Turkey
                [ 3 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Ankara Pediatric & Pediatric Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital , Ankara, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Hatice Gunes, MD; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders, Zuhuratbaba, Bakırköy, Istanbul 34147, Turkey; Phone: +90 212 409 1515/1435; Fax: +90 212 409 1595; E-mail: dr_haticegunes@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 25 October 2017
                : 19 February 2018
                : 15 April 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 50, Pages: 8
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for this study.
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                ADHD,conduct disorder,Internet addiction,oppositional defiant disorder,adolescents


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