+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mechanical basis of bone strength: influence of bone material, bone structure and muscle action


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          This review summarises current understanding of how bone is sculpted through adaptive processes, designed to meet the mechanical challenges it faces in everyday life and athletic pursuits, serving as an update for clinicians, researchers and physical therapists. Bone’s ability to resist fracture under the large muscle and locomotory forces it experiences during movement and in falls or collisions is dependent on its established mechanical properties, determined by bone’s complex and multidimensional material and structural organisation. At all levels, bone is highly adaptive to habitual loading, regulating its structure according to components of its loading regime and mechanical environment, inclusive of strain magnitude, rate, frequency, distribution and deformation mode. Indeed, the greatest forces habitually applied to bone arise from muscular contractions, and the past two decades have seen substantial advances in our understanding of how these forces shape bone throughout life. Herein, we also highlight the limitations of in vivo methods to assess and understand bone collagen, and bone mineral at the material or tissue level. The inability to easily measure or closely regulate applied strain in humans is identified, limiting the translation of animal studies to human populations, and our exploration of how components of mechanical loading regimes influence mechanoadaptation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references388

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Normal bone anatomy and physiology.

          This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understanding of the bone remodeling process is critical to appreciation of the value of and interpretation of the results of iliac crest bone histomorphometry. Osteoclast recruitment, activation, and bone resorption is discussed in some detail, followed by a review of osteoblast recruitment and the process of new bone formation. Next, the collagenous and noncollagenous protein components and function of bone extracellular matrix are summarized, followed by a description of the process of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix. The actions of biomechanical forces on bone are sensed by the osteocyte syncytium within bone via the canalicular network and intercellular gap junctions. Finally, concepts regarding bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast function, extracellular matrix, matrix mineralization, and osteocyte function are synthesized in a summary of the currently understood functional determinants of bone strength. This information lays the groundwork for understanding the utility and clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone.

            Detailed descriptions of the structural features of bone abound in the literature; however, the mechanical properties of bone, in particular those at the micro- and nano-structural level, remain poorly understood. This paper surveys the mechanical data that are available, with an emphasis on the relationship between the complex hierarchical structure of bone and its mechanical properties. Attempts to predict the mechanical properties of bone by applying composite rule of mixtures formulae have been only moderately successful, making it clear that an accurate model should include the molecular interactions or physical mechanisms involved in transfer of load across the bone material subunits. Models of this sort cannot be constructed before more information is available about the interactions between the various organic and inorganic components. Therefore, further investigations of mechanical properties at the 'materials level', in addition to the studies at the 'structural level' are needed to fill the gap in our present knowledge and to achieve a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of bone.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              THE MATERIAL BONE: Structure-Mechanical Function Relations

              ▪ Abstract The term bone refers to a family of materials, all of which are built up of mineralized collagen fibrils. They have highly complex structures, described in terms of up to 7 hierarchical levels of organization. These materials have evolved to fulfill a variety of mechanical functions, for which the structures are presumably fine-tuned. Matching structure to function is a challenge. Here we review the structure-mechanical relations at each of the hierarchical levels of organization, highlighting wherever possible both underlying strategies and gaps in our knowledge. The insights gained from the study of these fascinating materials are not only important biologically, but may well provide novel ideas that can be applied to the design of synthetic materials.

                Author and article information

                J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact
                J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact
                Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
                International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (Greece )
                September 2017
                : 17
                : 3
                : 114-139
                [1 ]Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A., Australia
                [2 ]Western Australian Bone Research Collaboration, Perth, W.A., Australia
                [3 ]Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, Edith Cowan University, Perth, W.A., Australia
                [4 ]School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                [5 ]School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom
                [6 ]Department of Endocrinology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth, W.A., Australia
                [7 ]School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, W.A., Australia
                [8 ]Institute of Health Research, University of Notre Dame Australia, Perth, W.A., Australia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dr. Hart, Nicolas, Building 21, Room 222, 270 Joondalup Drive, JOONDALUP, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 6027 E-mail: n.hart@ 123456ecu.edu.au
                Copyright: © Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Review Article

                adaptation, strain, magnitude, rate, frequency, load, tolerance, injury


                Comment on this article