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      Comportamiento estacional y temporal de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en La Habana, Cuba Translated title: Seasonal and spatial behaviour of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the City of Havana, Cuba

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVOS: por causa de la permanencia de Aedes albopictus en el ecosistema urbano y periurbano de varios municipios, después de su introducción en Cuba en 1995, así como la presencia de poblaciones residuales de Aedes aegypti, se evaluó el comportamiento temporal y espacial de ambas especies en un municipio de Ciudad de La Habana. MÉTODOS: se realizó la inspección de todos los locales del municipio Lisa durante enero-diciembre de 2006, se revisó todo tipo de depósitos con agua así como los criaderos naturales y las larvitrampas, dispositivo utilizado en la vigilancia del vector del dengue. RESULTADOS: se demostró la plasticidad ecológica de Aedes aegypti destacándose su presencia en los tanques bajos y las latas, mientras que Aedes albopictus prevaleció en las latas y las gomas. El mayor número de recipientes positivos para ambas especies se encontró en los meses julio-septiembre, perteneciente a la estación lluviosa en Cuba. Se evidenció una distribución alopátrica entre ambas especies; porque a pesar de estar Aedes aegypti distribuido en todo el municipio, su presencia fue menor en las áreas rurales donde predominó Aedes albopictus; aunque este último se mantuvo durante todo el año con baja positividad en los recipientes. CONCLUSIONES: a pesar de las actividades directas de control contra Aedes aegypti que se desarrollan en Cuba de manera permanente, las cuales hacen que prevalezcan bajas densidades de la especie, Aedes albopictus no la ha desplazado de sus sitios de cría habituales.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVES: Because of the permanence of Aedes albopictus in the urban and peri-urban ecosystems of various municipalities after the introduction of this vector in Cuba in 1995, as well as the presence of residual populations of Aedes aegypti, seasonal and spatial behaviour of both species was evaluated in a municipality of the City of Havana. METHODS: All the facilities located in Lisa municipality were inspected from January to December 2006 in which all kinds of water storage containers as well as natural breeding sites and larvitraps, a device for dengue vector surveillance, were surveyed. RESULTS: The ecological plasticity of Aedes aegypti was demonstrated, being mainly present in water storage tanks indoors and opened cans whereas Aedes albopictus prevailed in opened cans and water-filled tyres. The highest number of containers positive to both species was found from July to September during the rainy season in Cuba. In spite of the fact that Aedes aegypti was spread throughout the municipality, it was less predominant in rural areas than Aedes albopictus which in turn was less prevalent in containers. CONCLUSIONS: Although direct control actions against Aedes aegypti are permanently taken in Cuba, which leads to lower population densities of the species, Aedes albopictus has not been able to move the former away from its regular breeding sites.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus.

           N G Gratz (2004)
          The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originally indigenous to South-east Asia, islands of the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean, has spread during recent decades to Africa, the mid-east, Europe and the Americas (north and south) after extending its range eastwards across Pacific islands during the early 20th century. The majority of introductions are apparently due to transportation of dormant eggs in tyres. Among public health authorities in the newly infested countries and those threatened with the introduction, there has been much concern that Ae. albopictus would lead to serious outbreaks of arbovirus diseases (Ae. albopictus is a competent vector for at least 22 arboviruses), notably dengue (all four serotypes) more commonly transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.). Results of many laboratory studies have shown that many arboviruses are readily transmitted by Ae. albopictus to laboratory animals and birds, and have frequently been isolated from wild-caught mosquitoes of this species, particularly in the Americas. As Ae. albopictus continues to spread, displacing Ae. aegypti in some areas, and is anthropophilic throughout its range, it is important to review the literature and attempt to predict whether the medical risks are as great as have been expressed in scientific journals and the popular press. Examination of the extensive literature indicates that Ae. albopictus probably serves as a maintenance vector of dengue in rural areas of dengue-endemic countries of South-east Asia and Pacific islands. Also Ae. albopictus transmits dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in South-east Asia, south-eastern U.S.A. and both D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens (Raillet & Henry) in Italy. Despite the frequent isolation of dengue viruses from wild-caught mosquitoes, there is no evidence that Ae. albopictus is an important urban vector of dengue, except in a limited number of countries where Ae. aegypti is absent, i.e. parts of China, the Seychelles, historically in Japan and most recently in Hawaii. Further research is needed on the dynamics of the interaction between Ae. albopictus and other Stegomyia species. Surveillance must also be maintained on the vectorial role of Ae. albopictus in countries endemic for dengue and other arboviruses (e.g. Chikungunya, EEE, Ross River, WNV, LaCrosse and other California group viruses), for which it would be competent and ecologically suited to serve as a bridge vector.
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            Potential effect of population and climate changes on global distribution of dengue fever: an empirical model.

            Existing theoretical models of the potential effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases do not account for social factors such as population increase, or interactions between climate variables. Our aim was to investigate the potential effects of global climate change on human health, and in particular, on the transmission of vector-borne diseases. We modelled the reported global distribution of dengue fever on the basis of vapour pressure, which is a measure of humidity. We assessed changes in the geographical limits of dengue fever transmission, and in the number of people at risk of dengue by incorporating future climate change and human population projections into our model. We showed that the current geographical limits of dengue fever transmission can be modelled with 89% accuracy on the basis of long-term average vapour pressure. In 1990, almost 30% of the world population, 1.5 billion people, lived in regions where the estimated risk of dengue transmission was greater than 50%. With population and climate change projections for 2085, we estimate that about 5-6 billion people (50-60% of the projected global population) would be at risk of dengue transmission, compared with 3.5 billion people, or 35% of the population, if climate change did not happen. We conclude that climate change is likely to increase the area of land with a climate suitable for dengue fever transmission, and that if no other contributing factors were to change, a large proportion of the human population would then be put at risk.
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              Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications.

              Since its discovery in Houston, Texas, in 1987, the Asian "tiger mosquito" Aedes albopictus has spread to 678 counties in 25 states. This species, which readily colonizes container habitats in the peridomestic environment, was probably introduced into the continental United States in shipments of scrap tires from northern Asia. The early pattern of dispersal followed the interstate highway system, which suggests further dispersal by human activities. The Public Health Service Act of 1988 requires shipments of used tires from countries with Ae. albopictus to be treated to prevent further importations. Given the extensive spread of the mosquito in the United States, it is questionable whether such a requirement is still justified. Ae. albopictus, a major biting pest throughout much of its range, is a competent laboratory vector of at least 22 arboviruses, including many viruses of public health importance. Cache Valley and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses are the only human pathogens isolated from U.S. populations of Ae. albopictus. There is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the United States.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                mtr
                Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical
                Rev Cubana Med Trop
                Centro Nacional de Información de Ciencias Médicas (Ciudad de la Habana )
                1561-3054
                April 2008
                : 60
                : 1
                : 0
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brazil
                S0375-07602008000100009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Cuba
                Categories
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

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