Blog
About

23
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A comparison of medical education in Germany and the United States: from applying to medical school to the beginnings of residency Translated title: Ein Vergleich der medizinischen Ausbildungen in Deutschland und den USA: Von der Bewerbung zum Medizinstudium bis zu den Anfängen der Facharztweiterbildung

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Both Germany and the United States of America have a long tradition of science and medical excellence reaching back as far as the nineteenth century. The same tribute must be paid to the medical educational system in both countries. Despite significant initial similarities and cross-inspiration, the paths from enrolling in a medical university to graduating as a medical doctor in Germany and the US seem to have become much different. To fill a void in literature, the authors’ objective therefore is to delineate both structures of medical education in an up-to-date review and examine their current differences and similarities. Recent medical publications, legal guidelines of governmental or official organizations, articles in media, as well as the authors’ personal experiences are used as sources of this report.

          Tuition loans of over $200,000 are not uncommon for students in the US after graduating from medical schools, which are often private institutions. In Germany, however, the vast majority of medical universities are tax-funded and, for this reason, free of tuition. Significant differences and surprisingly multiple similarities exist between these two systems, despite one depending on government and the other on private organizations. Germany currently employs an integrated medical curriculum that typically begins right after high school and consists of a 2-year long pre-clinical segment teaching basic sciences and a 4-year clinical segment leading medical students to the practical aspects of medicine. On the other hand, the US education is a two-stage process. After successful completion of a Bachelor’s degree in college, an American student goes through a 4-year medical program encompassing 2 years of basic science and 2 years of clinical training. In this review, we will address some of these similarities and major differences.

          Zusammenfassung

          Deutschland und die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika haben beide eine lange Tradition der Naturwissenschaft und medizinischen Exzellenz, die bis weit in das neunzehnte Jahrhundert zurückreicht. Den gleichen Tribut muss man den medizinischen Ausbildungssystemen beider Länder zollen. Trotz zu Beginn bedeutsamer Ähnlichkeiten und gewisser Querinspiration scheinen sich die Wege von der Immatrikulation an einer medizinischen Fakultät bis zum Studienabschluss als Arzt in Deutschland und den USA getrennt zu haben. Um eine Lücke in der Fachliteratur zu schließen, ist das Ziel der Autoren, die beiden Strukturen der medizinischen Ausbildung mittels einer aktuellen Übersichtsschrift darzustellen und deren Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten zu untersuchen. Die neusten medizinischen Publikationen, verbindliche Richtlinien von amtlichen oder offiziellen Organisationen, Artikel in der Presse, aber auch die persönlichen Erfahrungen der Autoren dienen als Quellen für diese Arbeit.

          Studienkredite von über $200.000 sind nicht selten für Studenten in den USA nach deren Abschluss an einer medizinischen Hochschule, die meist in privatem Eigentum ist. In Deutschland dagegen ist die große Mehrheit der Universitäten mit medizinischen Fakultäten in öffentlicher Hand, aus Steuern finanziert und deshalb frei von Studiengebühren. Signifikante Unterschiede doch auch überraschenderweise eine Reihe von Ähnlichkeiten existieren zwischen den Systemen der zwei Länder, obwohl eines von privaten Einrichtungen und das andere von staatlichen Hochschulen abhängig ist. Deutschland verwendet aktuell ein ganzheitliches medizinisches Curriculum, das klassischerweise direkt nach dem Abitur beginnt und aus zwei Jahren vorklinischer und vier Jahren klinischer Ausbildung besteht, wobei letzteres die Studenten an die praktischen Aspekte der Medizin heranführen soll. Auf der anderen Seite herrscht in den USA ein zweistufiger Ausbildungsprozess. Nach erfolgreichem Erreichen eines Bachelorgrads im College führt der Weg eines amerikanischen Studenten durch ein vierjähriges Medizinstudium, welches aus zwei Jahren Grundlagenlehre und zwei Jahren klinischer Ausbildung besteht. In dieser Überblicksarbeit werden wir uns mit einigen dieser Gemeinsamkeiten und Hauptunterschiede befassen.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 68

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

          To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The predictive validity of the MCAT for medical school performance and medical board licensing examinations: a meta-analysis of the published research.

            To conduct a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the predictive validity of the MCAT on medical school performance and medical board licensing examinations. The authors included all peer-reviewed published studies reporting empirical data on the relationship between MCAT scores and medical school performance or medical board licensing exam measures. Moderator variables, participant characteristics, and medical school performance/medical board licensing exam measures were extracted and reviewed separately by three reviewers using a standardized protocol. Medical school performance measures from 11 studies and medical board licensing examinations from 18 studies, for a total of 23 studies, were selected. A random-effects model meta-analysis of weighted effects sizes (r) resulted in (1) a predictive validity coefficient for the MCAT in the preclinical years of r = 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.54) and on the USMLE Step 1 of r = 0.60 (95% CI, 0.50-0.67); and (2) the biological sciences subtest as the best predictor of medical school performance in the preclinical years (r = 0.32 95% CI, 0.21-0.42) and on the USMLE Step 1 (r = 0.48 95% CI, 0.41-0.54). The predictive validity of the MCAT ranges from small to medium for both medical school performance and medical board licensing exam measures. The medical profession is challenged to develop screening and selection criteria with improved validity that can supplement the MCAT as an important criterion for admission to medical schools.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              STUDENTJAMA. The Flexner report and the standardization of American medical education.

               H. Beck (2004)
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ger Med Sci
                Ger Med Sci
                GMS Ger Med Sci
                GMS German Medical Science
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                1612-3174
                25 September 2017
                2017
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Reconstructive Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
                [2 ]Department of Plastic Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA
                [4 ]Institute of Molecular Immunology & Experimental Oncology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Dmitry Zavlin, Institute for Reconstructive Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medicine, 6560 Fannin Street, Scurlock Tower, Suite 2200, Houston, TX 77030, USA, Phone: +1 713-441-6638, E-mail: dzavlin@ 123456houstonmethodist.org
                Article
                000256 Doc15 urn:nbn:de:0183-0002568
                10.3205/000256
                5617919
                Copyright © 2017 Zavlin et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. See license information at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Categories
                Article

                Medicine

                united states, germany, physician, education, medical school

                Comments

                Comment on this article