Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell–cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 178

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Exosome-mediated transfer of mRNAs and microRNAs is a novel mechanism of genetic exchange between cells.

      Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells. These vesicles can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation. Here, we show that exosomes from a mouse and a human mast cell line (MC/9 and HMC-1, respectively), as well as primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells, contain RNA. Microarray assessments revealed the presence of mRNA from approximately 1300 genes, many of which are not present in the cytoplasm of the donor cell. In vitro translation proved that the exosome mRNAs were functional. Quality control RNA analysis of total RNA derived from exosomes also revealed presence of small RNAs, including microRNAs. The RNA from mast cell exosomes is transferable to other mouse and human mast cells. After transfer of mouse exosomal RNA to human mast cells, new mouse proteins were found in the recipient cells, indicating that transferred exosomal mRNA can be translated after entering another cell. In summary, we show that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location. We propose that this RNA is called "exosomal shuttle RNA" (esRNA).
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: found
        Is Open Access

        Extracellular vesicles: Exosomes, microvesicles, and friends

        Cells release into the extracellular environment diverse types of membrane vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin called exosomes and microvesicles, respectively. These extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNA. Deficiencies in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for EV formation and lack of methods to interfere with the packaging of cargo or with vesicle release, however, still hamper identification of their physiological relevance in vivo. In this review, we focus on the characterization of EVs and on currently proposed mechanisms for their formation, targeting, and function.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses.

          Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in several adult tissues. Transplanted allogeneic MSCs can be detected in recipients at extended time points, indicating a lack of immune recognition and clearance. As well, a role for bone marrow-derived MSCs in reducing the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) during allogeneic transplantation has recently been reported; however, the mechanisms remain to be investigated. We examined the immunomodulatory functions of human MSCs (hMSCs) by coculturing them with purified subpopulations of immune cells and report here that hMSCs altered the cytokine secretion profile of dendritic cells (DCs), naive and effector T cells (T helper 1 [T(H)1] and T(H)2), and natural killer (NK) cells to induce a more anti-inflammatory or tolerant phenotype. Specifically, the hMSCs caused mature DCs type 1 (DC1) to decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and mature DC2 to increase interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion; hMSCs caused T(H)1 cells to decrease interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and caused the T(H)2 cells to increase secretion of IL-4; hMSCs caused an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells (T(Regs)) present; and hMSCs decreased secretion of IFN-gamma from the NK cells. Mechanistically, the hMSCs produced elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) in co-cultures, and inhibitors of PGE(2) production mitigated hMSC-mediated immune modulation. These data offer insight into the interactions between allogeneic MSCs and immune cells and provide mechanisms likely involved with the in vivo MSC-mediated induction of tolerance that could be therapeutic for reduction of GVHD, rejection, and modulation of inflammation.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]University of Vermont, Burlington, VT USA
            [2 ]Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Texas A & M University College of Medicine, 206 Olsen Blvd., Room 228, MS1114, College Station, TX 77845 USA
            [3 ]Department of Medicine, Stem Cell Core, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Ste 2, Colchester, VT 05446 USA
            Contributors
            jspees@uvm.edu
            RLee@medicine.tamhsc.edu
            CGregory@medicine.tamhsc.edu
            Journal
            Stem Cell Res Ther
            Stem Cell Res Ther
            Stem Cell Research & Therapy
            BioMed Central (London )
            1757-6512
            31 August 2016
            31 August 2016
            2016
            : 7
            : 1
            5007684 363 10.1186/s13287-016-0363-7
            © The Author(s). 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Funding
            Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
            Award ID: R01 NS073815
            Award Recipient :
            Categories
            Review
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2016

            Comments

            Comment on this article