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      Toxoplasma Gondii Infection and Depression: A Case–Control Seroprevalence Study

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          We assessed the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection and depression in a sample of psychiatric patients and control subjects without depression. We performed an age- and gender-matched case–control study of 89 patients suffering from depression attended in a public psychiatric hospital in Durango City, Mexico and 356 control subjects without depression from the general population of the same city. Participants were tested for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (12.4%) of the 89 cases and in 22 (6.2%) of the 356 controls (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.00–4.59; P = 0.04). Anti- T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in four (19%) of 21 anti- T. gondii IgG seropositive controls but not in 11 anti- T. gondii IgG seropositive cases ( P = 0.27). Patients aged 30 years old and younger had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same age group ( P = 0.001). Results of the present study suggest a potential association between T. gondii infection and depression. Furthers studies to confirm our results and to determine the epidemiology of T. gondii in young depressed patients should be conducted.

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          Most cited references 27

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          History of the discovery of the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii.

           Vinod Dubey (2009)
          It has been 100 years since the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii in 1908. Its full life cycle was not discovered until 1970 when it was found that it is a coccidian parasite of cats with all non-feline warm blooded animals (including humans) as intermediate hosts. The discovery of the environmentally resistant stage of the parasite, the oocyst, made it possible to explain its worldwide prevalence. In the present paper, events associated with the discovery of its life cycle are recalled.
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            Beyond the association. Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            To perform a meta-analysis on studies reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in any psychiatric disorder compared with healthy controls. Our secondary objective was to analyze factors possibly moderating heterogeneity.
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              Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city.

              There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. in total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (mean age 37 ± 16.1 yr) had IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies. Twenty (2.1%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. IgG levels of 13-99, 100-150, and >150 International Units (IU)/ml were found in 14 (23.7%), 3 (5.1%), and 42 (71.2%) anti- T. gondii IgG-positive participants, respectively. Prevalence of infection increased with age (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in participants born in Durango State than those born in other Mexican states (P < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of boar meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.13), and squirrel meat (adjusted OR  =  2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.09). in addition, infection was negatively associated with travel abroad (adjusted OR  =  0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.77), and salami consumption (adjusted OR  =  0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for T. gondii infection in general population in Durango City, and of an association of the consumption of boar meat with T. gondii infection. This study provides a basis for the design of successful preventive measures against T. gondii infection.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                25 April 2016
                24 June 2016
                : 6
                : 2
                : 85-89
                [1 ] Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N , 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                [2 ]Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm,” Juárez University of Durango State. Avenida Universidad S/N , 34000 Durango, Durango, Mexico
                [3 ] Facultad de Enfermería y Obstetricia, Juárez University of Durango State , Cuauhtémoc 223 norte, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [4 ] Hospital of Mental Health “Dr. Miguel Vallebueno”, Servicios de Salud de Durango , Durango, Mexico
                [5 ]General Hospital, Secretary of Health , Avenida 5 de febrero 220, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [6 ]Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School , Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, México; 0052-618-8130527; alvaradocosme@

                ** Current address: Chief Medical Officer, Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA

                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 5
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