+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Animal models of memory have been considered as the subject of many scientific publications at least since the beginning of the twentieth century. In humans, memory is often accessed through spoken or written language, while in animals, cognitive functions must be accessed through different kind of behaviors in many specific, experimental models of memory and learning. Among them, the novel object recognition test can be evaluated by the differences in the exploration time of novel and familiar objects. Its application is not limited to a field of research and enables that various issues can be studied, such as the memory and learning, the preference for novelty, the influence of different brain regions in the process of recognition, and even the study of different drugs and their effects. This paper describes the novel object recognition paradigms in animals, as a valuable measure of cognition. The purpose of this work was to review the neurobiology and methodological modifications of the test commonly used in behavioral pharmacology.

          Related collections

          Most cited references42

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Recognition memory for objects, place, and temporal order: a disconnection analysis of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex.

          Recognition memory requires judgments of the previous occurrence of stimuli made on the basis of the relative familiarity of individual objects, or by integrating information concerning objects and location, or by using recency information. The present study examined the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and perirhinal cortex (PRH) in these distinct recognition memory processes using a series of behavioral tests: a novel object preference task, an object-in-place task, and a temporal order memory task. Also, a disconnection procedure was used to test whether these regions form components of an integrated system for recognition memory. Male DA rats received bilateral lesions in the PRH or mPFC or unilateral lesions placed in both cortices in either the same (PRH-mPFC IPSI) or contralateral (PRH-mPFC CONTRA) hemispheres. A fifth group underwent sham surgery (SHAM). In the object-in-place and temporal order memory tasks, the PRH, mPFC, and PRH-mPFC CONTRA groups were significantly impaired. However, performance in the novel object preference task was only impaired in the PRH group. No group was impaired in the object location task. These results demonstrate that the mPFC and PRH are crucial for object-in-place associational and recency discriminations, whereas the PRH but not the mPFC is important for the discrimination of novel and familiar individual objects. Importantly, these results provide direct support for the hypothesis that to make discriminations based on associational or recency information, both cortical regions operate within an integrated neural network for recognition memory.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Object recognition memory and the rodent hippocampus.

            In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR task. Rats received 12 5-min exposures to two identical objects and then received either bilateral lesions of the hippocampus or sham surgery 1 d, 4 wk, or 8 wk after the final exposure. On a retention test 2 wk after surgery, the 1-d and 4-wk hippocampal lesion groups exhibited impaired object recognition memory. In contrast, the 8-wk hippocampal lesion group performed similarly to controls, and both groups exhibited a preference for the novel object. These same rats were then given four postoperative tests using unique object pairs and a 3-h delay between the exposure phase and the test phase. Hippocampal lesions produced moderate and reliable memory impairment. The results suggest that the hippocampus is important for object recognition memory.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              One-trial object recognition in rats and mice: methodological and theoretical issues.

              A Ennaceur (2010)
              The one-trial object recognition task involves memory of a familiar object in parallel with the detection and encoding of a novel object. It provides the basis for the study of a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychological functions and processes in rats and mice. However, unlike in humans, primate and pigeon studies, object recognition in rats and mice has been mostly limited to memory while little is known about object perception, affordances and acquisition of a representation of an object. In the present paper, we addressed some of these issues. We also described novelty preference models and hypotheses that account for one-trial object recognition and question the validity of the novelty preference concept. In addition, we discussed whether one-trial object recognition involves working memory and how it involves memory of an episode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                +351-217-946400 , +351-217-946470 , martacoelhoantunes@gmail.com
                +48-81-5357371 , +48-81-5357371 , grazyna.biala@umlub.pl
                Cogn Process
                Cogn Process
                Cognitive Processing
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                9 December 2011
                9 December 2011
                May 2012
                : 13
                : 2
                : 93-110
                [1 ]Chair and Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, 4A Chodźki St, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
                [2 ]Marta Elvina Vieira Coelho Antunes, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal
                © The Author(s) 2011
                Custom metadata
                © Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2012

                animals,behavioural sciences,novel object recognition,neurosciences,artificial intelligence (incl. robotics),memory,biomedicine,novelty,learning


                Comment on this article