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      The novel object recognition memory: neurobiology, test procedure, and its modifications

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          Abstract

          Animal models of memory have been considered as the subject of many scientific publications at least since the beginning of the twentieth century. In humans, memory is often accessed through spoken or written language, while in animals, cognitive functions must be accessed through different kind of behaviors in many specific, experimental models of memory and learning. Among them, the novel object recognition test can be evaluated by the differences in the exploration time of novel and familiar objects. Its application is not limited to a field of research and enables that various issues can be studied, such as the memory and learning, the preference for novelty, the influence of different brain regions in the process of recognition, and even the study of different drugs and their effects. This paper describes the novel object recognition paradigms in animals, as a valuable measure of cognition. The purpose of this work was to review the neurobiology and methodological modifications of the test commonly used in behavioral pharmacology.

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          Most cited references 47

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          A new one-trial test for neurobiological studies of memory in rats. 1: Behavioral data.

          In this paper we describe a new memory test in rats, based on the differential exploration of familiar and new objects. In a first trial (T1), rats are exposed to one or to two identical objects (samples) and in a second trial, to two dissimilar objects, a familiar (the sample) and a new one. For short intertrial intervals (approximately 1 min), most rats discriminate between the two objects in T2: they spend more time in exploring the new object than the familiar one. This test has several interesting characteristics: (1) it is similar to visual recognition tests widely used in subhuman primates, this allows interspecies comparisons; (2) it is entirely based on the spontaneous behavior of rats and can be considered as a 'pure' working-memory test completely free of reference memory component; (3) it does not involve primary reinforcement such as food or electric shocks, this makes it comparable to memory tests currently used in man.
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            Recognition memory for objects, place, and temporal order: a disconnection analysis of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex.

            Recognition memory requires judgments of the previous occurrence of stimuli made on the basis of the relative familiarity of individual objects, or by integrating information concerning objects and location, or by using recency information. The present study examined the role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and perirhinal cortex (PRH) in these distinct recognition memory processes using a series of behavioral tests: a novel object preference task, an object-in-place task, and a temporal order memory task. Also, a disconnection procedure was used to test whether these regions form components of an integrated system for recognition memory. Male DA rats received bilateral lesions in the PRH or mPFC or unilateral lesions placed in both cortices in either the same (PRH-mPFC IPSI) or contralateral (PRH-mPFC CONTRA) hemispheres. A fifth group underwent sham surgery (SHAM). In the object-in-place and temporal order memory tasks, the PRH, mPFC, and PRH-mPFC CONTRA groups were significantly impaired. However, performance in the novel object preference task was only impaired in the PRH group. No group was impaired in the object location task. These results demonstrate that the mPFC and PRH are crucial for object-in-place associational and recency discriminations, whereas the PRH but not the mPFC is important for the discrimination of novel and familiar individual objects. Importantly, these results provide direct support for the hypothesis that to make discriminations based on associational or recency information, both cortical regions operate within an integrated neural network for recognition memory.
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              One-trial object recognition in rats and mice: methodological and theoretical issues.

               A Ennaceur (2010)
              The one-trial object recognition task involves memory of a familiar object in parallel with the detection and encoding of a novel object. It provides the basis for the study of a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychological functions and processes in rats and mice. However, unlike in humans, primate and pigeon studies, object recognition in rats and mice has been mostly limited to memory while little is known about object perception, affordances and acquisition of a representation of an object. In the present paper, we addressed some of these issues. We also described novelty preference models and hypotheses that account for one-trial object recognition and question the validity of the novelty preference concept. In addition, we discussed whether one-trial object recognition involves working memory and how it involves memory of an episode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +351-217-946400 , +351-217-946470 , martacoelhoantunes@gmail.com
                +48-81-5357371 , +48-81-5357371 , grazyna.biala@umlub.pl
                Journal
                Cogn Process
                Cogn Process
                Cognitive Processing
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1612-4782
                1612-4790
                9 December 2011
                9 December 2011
                May 2012
                : 13
                : 2
                : 93-110
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chair and Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, 4A Chodźki St, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
                [2 ]Marta Elvina Vieira Coelho Antunes, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisbon, Portugal
                Article
                430
                10.1007/s10339-011-0430-z
                3332351
                22160349
                © The Author(s) 2011
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2012

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