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      In vitro and in vivo antitumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells


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          Coconut water and vinegars have been reported to possess potential anti-tumour and immunostimulatory effects. However, the anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of coconut water vinegar have yet to be tested.


          This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells.


          The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the in vitro analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.


          Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells in vitro. In vivo, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.


          Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.

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          Most cited references29

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          Immunosuppression associated with chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment.

          Chronic inflammation contributes to cancer development via multiple mechanisms. One potential mechanism is that chronic inflammation can generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that allows advantages for tumor formation and progression. The immunosuppressive environment in certain chronic inflammatory diseases and solid cancers is characterized by accumulation of proinflammatory mediators, infiltration of immune suppressor cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways in effector T cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how immunosuppression contributes to cancer and how proinflammatory mediators induce the immunosuppressive microenvironment via induction of immunosuppressive cells and activation of immune checkpoint pathways.
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            Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

            Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature

              Background: Evidence for the role of diet and physical activity in cancer incidence is well documented, but owing to increased cancer survivorship, an understanding of these lifestyle factors after a cancer diagnosis is of crucial importance. The purpose of this review was to update the literature in a review undertaken for the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative and to include observational studies that were not included in the WCRF survivorship systematic review. Methods: Evidence was initially gathered from pre-defined searches of the Cochrane Library Database and PubMed from March 2006 to February 2010. After a comprehensive review regarding lifestyle and cancer, for the purpose of this article, any studies not related to diet and physical activity, prognostic outcomes, and breast, colorectal or prostate cancers were excluded. Another search of 2011 literature was conducted to update the evidence. Results: A total of 43 records were included in this review. Evidence from observational studies suggests that a low-fat, high-fibre diet might be protective against cancer recurrence and progression. However, there is a paucity of RCTs substantiating this. There is more support for physical activity, with a dose response for better outcomes. When synthesized with findings from the World Cancer Research Fund review of RCTs investigating the effect of diet and physical activity interventions on cancer survival, evidence suggests that the mechanism of benefit from diet and physical activity pertains to body weight, with excess body weight being a risk factor, which is modifiable through lifestyle. Implications: Cancer survivors would like to have a more active role in their health care and to know how to look after themselves after diagnosis, including what diet and lifestyle changes they should make. The challenge is in integrating lifestyle support into standardised models of aftercare.

                Author and article information

                Food Nutr Res
                Food Nutr Res
                Food & Nutrition Research
                Open Academia
                10 January 2019
                : 63
                : 10.29219/fnr.v63.1616
                [1 ]Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [2 ]China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia, Jalan Sunsuria, Bandar Sunsuria, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [3 ]Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [4 ]UKM Medical Centre, UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute (UMBI), Cheras, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia
                [5 ]Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
                [6 ]Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                Author notes
                [* ] Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia. Email: noorjahan@ 123456upm.edu.my
                © 2019 Nurul Elyani Mohamad et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                : 15 April 2017
                : 12 September 2018
                : 28 November 2018
                Original Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                coconut water vinegar,breast cancer,metastasis
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                coconut water vinegar, breast cancer, metastasis


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