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      HIV-Associated Nephropathy

      a , b

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      HIV, Renal disease, Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, Collapsing glomerulopathy

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          Abstract

          HIV-associated nephropathy is manifested by heavy proteinuria and renal insufficiency and characterized pathologically by the collapsing variant of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with acute tubular necrosis and mild interstitial inflammation. Untreated, it may result in end-stage renal disease in as little as 4 months. It may present in patients with any manifestation of HIV infection, and affects predominantly black individuals. Insights into pathogenesis have come from a transgenic mouse model, renal cell cultures, and from study of human biopsy material. Although the pathogenesis is not completely understood, current considerations revolve around the role of HIV or protein in renal epithelium and the effects of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β and basic fibroblast growth factor, on renal structures. Therapy with zidovudine, corticosteroids, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has met with modest success; to date, protease inhibitors have not been assessed.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Prednisone improves renal function and proteinuria in human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy.

          To determine if prednisone ameliorates the course of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIV-AN). Twenty consecutive HIV-infected adults with biopsy-proven HIV-AN (n = 17) or clinical characteristics of HIV-AN (n = 3) with serum creatinine concentrations > 177 mumol/L (2 mg/dL) or proteinuria > 2.0 g/d or both were prospectively evaluated and treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/d for 2 to 11 weeks, followed by a tapering course of prednisone over a 2- to 26-week period. Serum creatinine concentration, 24-hour protein excretion, serum albumin, and steroid-related adverse effects were assessed before and after treatment. Nineteen patients had serum creatinine concentrations > 117 mumol/L (2 mg/dL). Two of them progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) in 4 to 5 weeks. In 17 patients serum creatinine levels decreased from 717 +/- 103 mumol/L (8.1 +/- mg/dL) (mean +/- SE) to 262 +/- 31 mumol/L (3.0 +/- 0.4 mg/dL) (P < 0.001). Five patients relapsed after prednisone was discontinued and were retreated. In these 5 the serum creatinine declined from 728 +/- 107 mumol/L (8.2 +/- 1.2 mg/dL) to 344 +/- 47 mumol/L (3.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL) (P < 0.01) in response to the second course of prednisone. Twelve of 13 tested patients showed a reduction in 24-hour urinary protein excretion with an average decrement from 9.1 +/- 1.8 g/d to 3.2 +/- 0.6 g/d (P < 0.005). Serum albumin increased from 24.4 +/- 3.6 g/L to 29.3 +/- 2.6 g/L (P = NS) in the 11 patients with paired 24-hour urine collections for whom pre- and post-treatment determinations were available. In one non-azotemic patient with nephrotic syndrome, protein excretion declined from 15.2 to 2.2 g/day and the serum albumin increased from 4.0 g/L to 31.0 g/L. The 20 patients have been followed for a median of 44 weeks (range 8 to 107). Eight ultimately required maintenance dialysis. Eleven died from complications of HIV disease 14 to 107 weeks after institution of prednisone; none was receiving prednisone at the time of death. Seven are alive and free from ESRD a median of 25 weeks (range 8 to 81) from the initiation of prednisone therapy. Six patients developed a total of seven serious infections while receiving prednisone, including Mycobacterium avium-complex infection in 2 and CMV retinitis in 3. Prednisone improves serum creatinine and proteinuria in a substantial proportion of adults with HIV-AN. Corticosteroid-related side effects are not prohibitive. A prospective, randomized controlled trial is required to confirm these preliminary results.
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            Infection of human primary renal epithelial cells with HIV-1 from children with HIV-associated nephropathy.

            Children affected with human immunodefficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) usually develop significant renal glomerular and tubular epithelial cell injury. The pathogenesis of these changes is not clearly understood. Human renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEc) do not express CD4 surface receptors, and it is not clear whether these cells can be infected by HIV-1. Certain strains of HIV-1, however, have been shown capable of infecting CD4-negative epithelial cell lines. We hypothesized that the inability of laboratory strains of HIV-1 to infect renal epithelial cells may be due to a limited tropism, as opposed to wild-type viruses derived from children with HIVAN, and that viruses derived from these children are capable of infecting RTEc from the same patient. Here, we have demonstrated that HIV-1 isolates from children with HIVAN can productively infect RTEc through a CD4 independent pathway, and that infected mononuclear cells can transfer the virus to human RTEc. Human RTEc sustained low levels of viral replication and HIV-1 inhibited the growth and survival of cultured human RTEc. Thus, HIV-1 may directly induce degenerative changes in RTEc of children with HIVAN. Infected macrophages may play a relevant role in this process by transferring viruses to RTEc.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              1999
              October 1999
              22 September 1999
              : 83
              : 2
              : 111-116
              Affiliations
              aDepartment of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and Departments of Pathology and Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif., and bDepartment of Pediatrics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Va., USA
              Article
              45486 Nephron 1999;83:111–116
              10.1159/000045486
              10516488
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 2, References: 25, Pages: 6
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45486
              Categories
              Distinguished Scientists Lecture Series<br>Section Editors: J.C.M. Chan; R.J. Krieg, Jr.; J.I. Scheinmann (Richmond, Va.)

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