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      Mucosal vaccine efficacy against intrarectal SHIV is independent of anti-Env antibody response

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d1046573e395">It is widely believed that protection against acquisition of HIV or SIV infection requires anti-envelope (anti-Env) antibodies, and that cellular immunity may affect viral loads but not acquisition, except in special cases. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Mucosal immunization may enhance HIV vaccine efficacy by eliciting protective responses at portals of exposure. Accordingly, we vaccinated macaques mucosally with HIV/SIV peptides, modified vaccinia Ankara–SIV (MVA-SIV), and HIV-gp120–CD4 fusion protein plus adjuvants, which consistently reduced infection risk against heterologous intrarectal SHIV <sub>SF162P4</sub> challenge, both high dose and repeated low dose. Surprisingly, vaccinated animals exhibited no anti-gp120 humoral responses above background and Gag- and Env-specific T cells were induced but failed to correlate with viral acquisition. Instead, vaccine-induced gut microbiome alteration and myeloid cell accumulation in colorectal mucosa correlated with protection. Ex vivo stimulation of the myeloid cell–enriched population with SHIV led to enhanced production of trained immunity markers TNF-α and IL-6, as well as viral coreceptor agonist MIP1α, which correlated with reduced viral Gag expression and in vivo viral acquisition. Overall, our results suggest mechanisms involving trained innate mucosal immunity together with antigen-specific T cells, and also indicate that vaccines can have critical effects on the gut microbiome, which in turn can affect resistance to infection. Strategies to elicit similar responses may be considered for vaccine designs to achieve optimal protective efficacy. </p>

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          Global patterns of 16S rRNA diversity at a depth of millions of sequences per sample.

          The ongoing revolution in high-throughput sequencing continues to democratize the ability of small groups of investigators to map the microbial component of the biosphere. In particular, the coevolution of new sequencing platforms and new software tools allows data acquisition and analysis on an unprecedented scale. Here we report the next stage in this coevolutionary arms race, using the Illumina GAIIx platform to sequence a diverse array of 25 environmental samples and three known "mock communities" at a depth averaging 3.1 million reads per sample. We demonstrate excellent consistency in taxonomic recovery and recapture diversity patterns that were previously reported on the basis of metaanalysis of many studies from the literature (notably, the saline/nonsaline split in environmental samples and the split between host-associated and free-living communities). We also demonstrate that 2,000 Illumina single-end reads are sufficient to recapture the same relationships among samples that we observe with the full dataset. The results thus open up the possibility of conducting large-scale studies analyzing thousands of samples simultaneously to survey microbial communities at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.
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            BCG Educates Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Generate Protective Innate Immunity against Tuberculosis

            The dogma that adaptive immunity is the only arm of the immune response with memory capacity has been recently challenged by several studies demonstrating evidence for memory-like innate immune training. However, the underlying mechanisms and location for generating such innate memory responses in vivo remain unknown. Here, we show that access of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to the bone marrow (BM) changes the transcriptional landscape of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), leading to local cell expansion and enhanced myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis. Importantly, BCG-educated HSCs generate epigenetically modified macrophages that provide significantly better protection against virulent M. tuberculosis infection than naïve macrophages. By using parabiotic and chimeric mice, as well as adoptive transfer approaches, we demonstrate that training of the monocyte/macrophage lineage via BCG-induced HSC reprogramming is sustainable in vivo. Our results indicate that targeting the HSC compartment provides a novel approach for vaccine development.
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              Lack of ADCC Breadth of Human Nonneutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies.

              Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) capable of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been identified as a protective immune correlate in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) also mediate ADCC in cell culture and rely on their Fc region for optimal efficacy in animal models. Here, we selected 9 monoclonal nnAbs and 5 potent bNAbs targeting various epitopes and conformations of the gp120/41 complex and analyzed the potency of the two types of antibodies to bind and eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in culture. Regardless of their neutralizing activity, most of the selected antibodies recognized and killed cells infected with two laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains. Some nnAbs also bound bystander cells that may have captured viral proteins. However, in contrast to the bNAbs, the nnAbs bound poorly to reactivated infected cells from 8 HIV-positive individuals and did not mediate effective ADCC against these cells. The nnAbs also inefficiently recognize cells infected with 8 different transmitted-founder (T/F) isolates. The addition of a synthetic CD4 mimetic enhanced the binding and killing efficacy of some of the nnAbs in an epitope-dependent manner without reaching the levels achieved by the most potent bNAbs. Overall, our data reveal important qualitative and quantitative differences between nnAbs and bNAbs in their ADCC capacity and strongly suggest that the breadth of recognition of HIV-1 by nnAbs is narrow.IMPORTANCE Most of the anti-HIV antibodies generated by infected individuals do not display potent neutralizing activities. These nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been identified as a protective immune correlate in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. However, in primate models, the nnAbs do not protect against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition. Thus, the role of nnAbs with ADCC activity in protection from infection remains debatable. In contrast, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) neutralize a large array of viral strains and mediate ADCC in cell culture. We analyzed the capacities of 9 nnAbs and 5 bNAbs to eliminate infected cells. We selected 18 HIV-1 strains, including virus reactivated from the reservoir of HIV-positive individuals and transmitted-founder isolates. We report that the nnAbs bind poorly to cells infected with primary HIV-1 strains and do not mediate potent ADCC. Overall, our data show that the breadth of recognition of HIV-1 by nnAbs is narrow.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                1558-8238
                January 28 2019
                January 28 2019
                March 1 2019
                February 18 2019
                February 18 2019
                March 1 2019
                : 129
                : 3
                : 1314-1328
                Article
                10.1172/JCI122110
                6391089
                30776026
                487f84a5-b882-4420-b1ac-4feb726a3b33
                © 2019
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://www.jci.org/articles/view/122110

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