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      Decreased Levels of Cystatin C, an Inhibitor of the Elastolytic Enzyme Cysteine Protease, in Acute and Subacute Phases of Kawasaki Disease


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          Elevation of tissue-destructive proteases has been reported in acute Kawasaki disease. Cystatin C is a naturally occurring inhibitor of elastolytic cysteine protease in humans. Serum cystatin C deficiency in human beings has been linked to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. We investigated the serum levels of cystatin C during acute Kawasaki disease. Serum samples from 17 acute Kawasaki disease patients were collected before and after immunoglobulin therapy and also at a median of 17 days after the therapy. Eight adults and 10 children without intercurrent infections served as control patients. Children with Kawasaki disease prior to therapy had significantly lower levels of cystatin C compared to adults (p = 0.002) and control children (p = 0.001). The low levels persisted 1–106 days after the therapy. Compared to control children and adults, children with Kawasaki disease had significantly lower serum levels of cystatin C in the acute stage before immunoglobulin therapy and in the subacute phase after the immunoglobulin therapy.

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          Reference intervals for cystatin C in pre- and full-term infants and children.

          Cystatin C is a non-glycated, 13-kDa basic protein produced by all nucleated cells. Recent studies have indicated that the plasma concentration of cystatin C is a better marker for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than plasma creatinine, which is most commonly used for this purpose. We established reference values for plasma cystatin C in pre- or full-term infants and children. For comparison we also measured the creatinine concentration in the same samples. Cystatin C was measured by a commercially available immunoturbidimetric method with a Hitachi 704 analyzer in sera obtained from 58 pre-term infants, 50 full-term infants and 299 older children (132 girls, 167 boys, median age 4.17 years, range 8 days to 16 years). No sex differences were found. The pre-term infants had higher cystatin C concentrations (mean 1.88 mg/l, SD 0.36 mg/l) than the full-term (mean 1.70 mg/l, SD 0.26 mg/l, P=0.0145). The reference interval for pre-term infants calculated non-parametrically was 1.34-2.57 mg/l and for full-term infants 1.36-2.23 mg/l. The cystatin C concentration decreased rapidly after birth, and above 3 years of age did not depend on age. The reference interval for children 3-16 years of age calculated non-parametrically was 0.51-1.31 mg/l. Younger children (<1 year: 0.75-1.87 mg/l; 1-3 years: 0.68-1.60 mg/l) had slightly, but significantly, higher plasma cystatin C levels.
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            Cellular, enzymatic, and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              June 2003
              27 June 2003
              : 99
              : 3
              : 121-125
              aLaboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, Rockefeller University, bComprehensive Lipid Control Center, Rogosin Institute, and cDivision of Pediatric Cardiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, N.Y., USA
              70668 Cardiology 2003;99:121–125
              © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              : 25 February 2003
              : 10 March 2003
              Page count
              Figures: 1, References: 26, Pages: 5
              General Cardiology

              General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
              Cystatin C,Cysteine protease inhibitor,Kawasaki disease,Aneurysm


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