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      Sarcopenia and Comorbidity in Gastric Cancer Surgery as a Useful Combined Factor to Predict Eventual Death from Other Causes

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          Sarcopenia is recognized as an important prognostic factor in various types of cancer, including gastric cancer. While long-term survival analyses typically focus on overall and disease-specific survival, death from other causes has received far less attention.


          We reviewed medical records of 491 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from January 2005 to March 2014 and whose preoperative computed tomography (CT) images were available for evaluation of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as the SMA/BSA index (skeletal muscle area divided by body surface area) below the sex-specific lowest quartile.


          Sarcopenia was significantly associated with age, high body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbidity, high American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS), high T score, advanced stage, large blood loss, and long hospital stay, but was not significantly associated with postoperative complications. Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for overall survival revealed that sarcopenia is an independent predictor of poor prognosis [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–2.09, p  =  0.0454]. Our analysis of death due to other causes found that non-gastric cancer-related deaths were more frequent among sarcopenia patients with comorbidities than in the rest of our study population ( p  =  0.0001), while univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that sarcopenia with comorbidity was an independent risk factor for non-gastric cancer-related death (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.31–3.61, p  =  0.0308), as was age.


          For gastric cancer patients, sarcopenia increases the risk of death from other causes following surgery, which reveals the importance of developing treatment strategies based not only on cancer status but also on other clinical factors, including sarcopenia and comorbidity.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1245/s10434-018-6354-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          The impact of comorbidity on cancer and its treatment.

          Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Comorbidity is common among cancer patients and, with an aging population, is becoming more so. Comorbidity potentially affects the development, stage at diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of people with cancer. Despite the intimate relationship between comorbidity and cancer, there is limited consensus on how to record, interpret, or manage comorbidity in the context of cancer, with the result that patients who have comorbidity are less likely to receive treatment with curative intent. Evidence in this area is lacking because of the frequent exclusion of patients with comorbidity from randomized controlled trials. There is evidence that some patients with comorbidity have potentially curative treatment unnecessarily modified, compromising optimal care. Patients with comorbidity have poorer survival, poorer quality of life, and higher health care costs. Strategies to address these issues include improving the evidence base for patients with comorbidity, further development of clinical tools to assist decision making, improved integration and coordination of care, and skill development for clinicians. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:337-350. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
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            Markers of sarcopenia quantified by computed tomography predict adverse long-term outcome in patients with resected oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer.

            To assess the impact of sarcopenia and alterations in body composition parameters (BCPs) on survival after surgery for oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (OC).
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              Assessing non-cancer-related health status of US cancer patients: other-cause survival and comorbidity prevalence.

              With advances in prevention, screening, and treatment, cancer patients are living longer; hence, non-cancer-related health status will likely play a larger role in determining their life expectancy. In this study, we present a novel method for characterizing non-cancer--related health status of cancer patients using population-based cancer registry data. We assessed non-cancer-related health status in the context of survival from other causes of death and prevalence of comorbidities. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (2000-2006) were used to analyze cancer patients' survival probabilities by cause of death. Other-cause survival was estimated using a left-truncated survival method with the hazard of death due to other causes characterized as a function of age. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data linked to Medicare claims (1992-2005) were used to quantify comorbidity prevalence. Relative to the US population, survival from a non-cancer-related death was higher for patients diagnosed with early stage breast and prostate cancer but lower for lung cancer patients at all stages. Lung cancer patients had worse comorbidity status than did other cancer patients. The present study represents the first attempt to evaluate the non-cancer-related health status of US cancer patients by cancer site (breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung) and stage. The findings provide insight into non-cancer-related health issues among cancer patients and their risk of dying from other causes.

                Author and article information

                +81-86-235-7257 ,
                Ann Surg Oncol
                Ann. Surg. Oncol
                Annals of Surgical Oncology
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                5 February 2018
                5 February 2018
                : 25
                : 5
                : 1160-1166
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1302 4472, GRID grid.261356.5, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, , Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ; Okayama, Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0631 9477, GRID grid.412342.2, Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, , Okayama University Hospital, ; Okayama, Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0631 9477, GRID grid.412342.2, Minimally Invasive Therapy Center, , Okayama University Hospital, ; Okayama, Japan
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Gastrointestinal Oncology
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                © Society of Surgical Oncology 2018

                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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