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      Serum iPTH, calcium and phosphate, and the risk of mortality in a European haemodialysis population

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          Abstract

          Background. A number of US observational studies reported an increased mortality risk with higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium and/or phosphate. The existence of such a link in a European haemodialysis population was explored as part of the Analysing Data, Recognising Excellence and Optimising Outcomes (ARO) Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Research Initiative.

          Methods. The association between the markers of mineral and bone disease and clinical outcomes was examined in 7970 patients treated in European Fresenius Medical Care facilities over a median of 21 months. Baseline and time-dependent (TD) Cox regression were performed using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) target ranges as reference categories, adjusting for demographics, medical history, dialysis parameters, inflammation, medications and laboratory parameters. Fractional polynomial (FP) models were also used.

          Results. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates from baseline analysis for iPTH were U-shaped [>600 pg/mL, HR = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62–2.73; <75 pg/mL, HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.17–1.83]. TD analysis confirmed the results for iPTH. Baseline analysis showed that calcium >2.75 mmol/L increased risk of death (HR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.19–2.42). TD analysis showed that both low (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.37) and high calcium (HR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.30–2.34) increased risk of death. Baseline analysis for phosphate showed a U-shaped pattern (<1.13 mmol/L, HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.01–1.37; >1.78 mmol/L, HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.13–1.55). TD analysis confirmed the results for phosphate <1.13 mmol/L. HR estimates were higher in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes for baseline analysis only (P-value = 0.014). FP analysis confirmed the results of baseline and TD analyses.

          Conclusion . Patients with iPTH, calcium and phosphate levels within the KDOQI target ranges have the lowest risk of mortality compared with those outside the target ranges.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in maintenance hemodialysis.

          Mortality rates in ESRD are unacceptably high. Disorders of mineral metabolism (hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism) are potentially modifiable. For determining associations among disorders of mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in hemodialysis patients, data on 40,538 hemodialysis patients with at least one determination of serum phosphorus and calcium during the last 3 mo of 1997 were analyzed. Unadjusted, case mix-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted relative risks of death were calculated for categories of serum phosphorus, calcium, calcium x phosphorus product, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) using proportional hazards regression. Also determined was whether disorders of mineral metabolism were associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, infection-related, fracture-related, and vascular access-related hospitalization. After adjustment for case mix and laboratory variables, serum phosphorus concentrations >5.0 mg/dl were associated with an increased relative risk of death (1.07, 1.25, 1.43, 1.67, and 2.02 for serum phosphorus 5.0 to 6.0, 6.0 to 7.0, 7.0 to 8.0, 8.0 to 9.0, and >/=9.0 mg/dl). Higher adjusted serum calcium concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of death, even when examined within narrow ranges of serum phosphorus. Moderate to severe hyperparathyroidism (PTH concentrations >/=600 pg/ml) was associated with an increase in the relative risk of death, whereas more modest increases in PTH were not. When examined collectively, the population attributable risk percentage for disorders of mineral metabolism was 17.5%, owing largely to the high prevalence of hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and fracture-related hospitalization. Disorders of mineral metabolism are independently associated with mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in hemodialysis patients.
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            Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton.

            The regulation of bone remodeling by an adipocyte-derived hormone implies that bone may exert a feedback control of energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis we looked for genes expressed in osteoblasts, encoding signaling molecules and affecting energy metabolism. We show here that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase OST-PTP are hypoglycemic and are protected from obesity and glucose intolerance because of an increase in beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, mice lacking the osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin display decreased beta-cell proliferation, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Removing one Osteocalcin allele from OST-PTP-deficient mice corrects their metabolic phenotype. Ex vivo, osteocalcin can stimulate CyclinD1 and Insulin expression in beta-cells and Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, in adipocytes; in vivo osteocalcin can improve glucose tolerance. By revealing that the skeleton exerts an endocrine regulation of sugar homeostasis this study expands the biological importance of this organ and our understanding of energy metabolism.
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              KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD).

                (2009)
              The 2009 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline on the management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is intended to assist the practitioner caring for adults and children with CKD stages 3-5, on chronic dialysis therapy, or with a kidney transplant. The guideline contains recommendations on evaluation and treatment for abnormalities of CKD-MBD. This disease concept of CKD-MBD is based on a prior KDIGO consensus conference. Tests considered are those that relate to the detection and monitoring of laboratory, bone, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Treatments considered are interventions to treat hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and bone disease in patients with CKD stages 3-5D and 1-5T. The guideline development process followed an evidence based approach and treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant treatment trials. Recommendations for testing used evidence based on diagnostic accuracy or risk prediction and linked it indirectly with how this would be expected to achieve better outcomes for patients through better detection, evaluation or treatment of disease. Critical appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the GRADE approach. An ungraded statement was provided when a question did not lend itself to systematic literature review. Limitations of the evidence, especially the lack of definitive clinical outcome trials, are discussed and suggestions are provided for future research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrol Dial Transplant
                ndt
                ndt
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Oxford University Press
                0931-0509
                1460-2385
                June 2011
                25 April 2010
                25 April 2010
                : 26
                : 6
                : 1948-1955
                Affiliations
                [1 ]simpleRWTH University of Aachen , Aachen, Germany
                [2 ]Amgen Ltd, Uxbridge, UK
                [3 ]Nephrocare Tassin, France
                [4 ]simpleHopital Necker, Paris , France
                [5 ]simpleHospital Universitario Valdecilla , Santander, Spain
                [6 ]simpleInnsbruck Medical University , Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Innsbruck, Austria
                [7 ]Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany
                [8 ]Rudolfstiftung Hospital-Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                [9 ]Amgen (Europe) GmbH, Zug, Switzerland
                [10 ]simpleUniversity College London , UK
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: Jürgen Floege, Div. Nephrology, RWTH University of Aachen, Germany; E-mail: juergen.floege@ 123456rwth-aachen.de
                gfq219
                10.1093/ndt/gfq219
                3107766
                20466670
                © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Nephrology

                phosphate, parathyroid hormone, calcium, kdoqi, mineral bone disorders

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