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      Adiponectin and Cardiovascular Remodeling in End-Stage Renal Disease and Co-Morbid Diabetes Mellitus

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          Abstract

          Objectives and Methods: Altered plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin (ADP) may contribute to increased vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and co-morbid diabetes. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence, left-ventricular mass index (LVMI), and pulse wave velocity of the proximal aorta (PWVr) were determined by ultrasound imaging in 120 ESRD (55 diabetic) patients, and 83 age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched controls. Also, plasma levels of ADP and hs-CRP were determined and their relationships with the above cardiovascular alterations were analyzed. Results: LVMI, PWVr, CCA-IMT and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence were all increased in ESRD patients compared to controls (all p < 0.001). LVMI (p < 0.05), PWVr (p < 0.001), CCA-IMT (p < 0.001) and atherosclerotic plaque occurrence (p < 0.001) were increased in diabetic compared to nondiabetic ESRD patients. Hs-CRP levels were increased and ADP levels were decreased in diabetic compared to nondiabetic ESRD patients (both p < 0.001). ADP levels correlated inversely with hs-CRP (r = –0.473, p < 0.0001) in ESRD patients. Hs-CRP was positively correlated with LVMI (r = 0.365, p < 0.0001), PWVr (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) and CCA-IMT (r = 0.18, p = 0.047) while ADP inversely correlated with PWVr (r = –0.263, p = 0.0035) and CCA-IMT (r = –0.207, p = 0.022) in ESRD patients. Conclusion: The present results indicate diabetic disease-specific alterations in the biochemical parameters of hs-CRP and ADP in ESRD patients. The above biochemical parameters were intimately linked to the cardiovascular measurements of LVMI, PWVr and CCA-IMT in patients with ESRD and co-morbid diabetes mellitus.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.

          Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.
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            Accelerated atherosclerosis in prolonged maintenance hemodialysis.

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              Reciprocal association of C-reactive protein with adiponectin in blood stream and adipose tissue.

              High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a well-known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Recently, we have demonstrated that adiponectin served as an antiatherogenic plasma protein which was secreted specifically from adipocytes. The present study investigated the association between adiponectin and CRP in the blood stream and adipose tissue. We studied a total of 101 male patients, 71 of whom had angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis. As a control group, 30 patients with normal coronary angiogram were included. The plasma hs-CRP levels were negatively correlated with the plasma adiponectin levels (r=-0.29, P<0.01). The plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower and the hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in the CAD patients compared with control subjects. The mRNA levels of CRP and adiponectin were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We found that the CRP mRNA was expressed in human adipose tissue. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the CRP and adiponectin mRNA levels in human adipose tissue (r=-0.89, P<0.01). In addition, the CRP mRNA level of white adipose tissue in adiponectin deficient mice was higher than that of wild-type mice. The reciprocal association of adiponectin and CRP levels in both human plasma and adipose tissue might participate in the development of atherosclerosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                September 2006
                15 September 2006
                : 26
                : 4
                : 340-347
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bCardiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, and cIntensive Care Unit, General State Hospital of Athens, Greece; dAcademic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; eRenal Transplantation Unit, Laiko University Hospital, Athens, and fDialysis Unit, General Hospital of Chios, Chios, Greece
                Article
                94403 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:340–347
                10.1159/000094403
                16825760
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/94403
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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