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      Molecular phylogenetic analyses redefine seven major clades and reveal 22 new generic clades in the fungal family Boletaceae

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          Phylogenetic distribution and evolution of mycorrhizas in land plants.

          A survey of 659 papers mostly published since 1987 was conducted to compile a checklist of mycorrhizal occurrence among 3,617 species (263 families) of land plants. A plant phylogeny was then used to map the mycorrhizal information to examine evolutionary patterns. Several findings from this survey enhance our understanding of the roles of mycorrhizas in the origin and subsequent diversification of land plants. First, 80 and 92% of surveyed land plant species and families are mycorrhizal. Second, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is the predominant and ancestral type of mycorrhiza in land plants. Its occurrence in a vast majority of land plants and early-diverging lineages of liverworts suggests that the origin of AM probably coincided with the origin of land plants. Third, ectomycorrhiza (ECM) and its derived types independently evolved from AM many times through parallel evolution. Coevolution between plant and fungal partners in ECM and its derived types has probably contributed to diversification of both plant hosts and fungal symbionts. Fourth, mycoheterotrophy and loss of the mycorrhizal condition also evolved many times independently in land plants through parallel evolution.
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            Phyutility: a phyloinformatics tool for trees, alignments and molecular data.

            Phyutility provides a set of phyloinformatics tools for summarizing and manipulating phylogenetic trees, manipulating molecular data and retrieving data from NCBI. Its simple command-line interface allows for easy integration into scripted analyses, and is able to handle large datasets with an integrated database. Phyutility, including source code, documentation, examples, and executables, is available at http://code.google.com/p/phyutility.
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              Using RPB1 sequences to improve phylogenetic inference among mushrooms (Inocybe, Agaricales).

              An investigation of mushroom phylogeny using the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene sequences (RPB1) was conducted in comparison with nuclear ribosomal large subunit RNA gene sequences (nLSU) for the same set of taxa in the genus Inocybe (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). The two data sets, though not significantly incongruent, exhibit conflict among the placement of two taxa that exhibit long branches in the nLSU data set. In contrast, RPB1 terminal branch lengths are rather uniform. Bootstrap support is increased for clades in RPB1. Combined data sets increase the degree of confidence for several relationships. Overall, nLSU data do not yield a robust phylogeny when independently assessed by RPB1 sequences. This multigene study indicates that Inocybe is a monophyletic group composed of at least four distinct lineages-subgenus Mallocybe, section Cervicolores, section Rimosae, and subgenus Inocybe sensu Kühner, Kuyper, non Singer. Within subgenus Inocybe, two additional lineages, one composed of species with smooth basidiospores (clade I) and a second characterized by nodulose-spored species (clade II), are recovered by RPB1 and combined data. The nLSU data recover only clade I. The genera Astrosporina and Inocybella cannot be recognized phylogenetically. "Supersections" Cortinatae and Marginatae are not monophyletic groups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Fungal Diversity
                Fungal Diversity
                Springer Nature
                1560-2745
                1878-9129
                November 2014
                March 2014
                : 69
                : 1
                : 93-115
                Article
                10.1007/s13225-014-0283-8
                489739b3-5192-4d22-aa78-cf5fcabd0ac2
                © 2014
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13225-014-0283-8

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