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      Transplantation of fecal microbiota from patients with irritable bowel syndrome alters gut function and behavior in recipient mice.

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          Abstract

          Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by altered gut function and often is accompanied by comorbid anxiety. Although changes in the gut microbiota have been documented, their relevance to the clinical expression of IBS is unknown. To evaluate a functional role for commensal gut bacteria in IBS, we colonized germ-free mice with the fecal microbiota from healthy control individuals or IBS patients with diarrhea (IBS-D), with or without anxiety, and monitored gut function and behavior in the transplanted mice. Microbiota profiles in recipient mice clustered according to the microbiota profiles of the human donors. Mice receiving the IBS-D fecal microbiota showed a taxonomically similar microbial composition to that of mice receiving the healthy control fecal microbiota. However, IBS-D mice showed different serum metabolomic profiles. Mice receiving the IBS-D fecal microbiota, but not the healthy control fecal microbiota, exhibited faster gastrointestinal transit, intestinal barrier dysfunction, innate immune activation, and anxiety-like behavior. These results indicate the potential of the gut microbiota to contribute to both intestinal and behavioral manifestations of IBS-D and suggest the potential value of microbiota-directed therapies in IBS patients.

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          Most cited references 45

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          ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.

          The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. © 2013.
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            AGA technical review on irritable bowel syndrome.

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              Immune activation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

              We set out to test the hypothesis that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by an augmented cellular immune response with enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines. We further aimed to explore whether symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity in IBS are linked to the release of proinflammatory cytokines. We characterized basal and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 55 IBS patients (18 mixed-, 17 constipation-, 20 diarrhea-predominant) and 36 healthy controls (HCs). PBMCs were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and cultured for 24 hours with or without (1 ng/mL) LPS. Cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, and IL-6) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Abdominal symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities were assessed by using the validated Bowel Disease Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS patients showed significantly (P < .017) higher baseline TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and LPS-induced IL-6 levels compared with HCs. Analyzing IBS subgroups, all cytokine levels were significantly (P < .05) higher in diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) patients, whereas constipation-predominant IBS patients showed increased LPS-induced IL-1beta levels compared with HCs. Baseline TNF-alpha and LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients reporting more than 3 bowel movements per day, urgency, watery stools, and pain associated with diarrhea compared with patients without these symptoms (all P < .05). LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was associated significantly (r = 0.59, P < .001) with anxiety in patients with IBS. Patients with D-IBS display enhanced proinflammatory cytokine release, and this may be associated with symptoms and anxiety.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Transl Med
                Science translational medicine
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6242
                1946-6234
                Mar 01 2017
                : 9
                : 379
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
                [2 ] Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
                [3 ] Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
                [4 ] Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
                [5 ] Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
                [6 ] Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. bercikp@mcmaster.ca.
                Article
                9/379/eaaf6397
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf6397
                28251905

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