Our aims were to evaluate the primary and clinical evisceration indications and to analyse orbital implant related complications.
We included in our retrospective review all eviscerations between 2006 and 2016 at the Department of Ophthalmology of Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. Primary evisceration indications were classified into six groups: trauma, surgical diseases, infections or inflammations, systemic diseases, tumours and unclassifiable diseases. Clinical immediate evisceration indications were also classified into six groups: painful blind eye due to glaucoma, atrophia/phthisis bulbi, endophthalmitis, cosmetic reasons, acute trauma and expulsive bleeding.
Evisceration was performed in 46 eyes of 46 patients (54.3% males, age 43.0 ± 18.6 years). The most common primary evisceration indications were trauma (37%), surgical diseases (34.8%), infection or inflammation (10.9%), systemic diseases (6.5%), tumours (8.7%) and unclassifiable diseases (2.2%). Painful blind eye due to glaucoma (34.8%) was the most common clinical indication for evisceration, followed by atrophia/phthisis bulbi (26.1%), endophthalmitis (17.4%), cosmetic reasons (13.0%), acute trauma (6.5%) and expulsive bleeding (2.2%). After evisceration, 91.3% of the patients received orbital implant and during 26.8±28.9 months follow-up implant related complications were found in 14.3% of the cases, including implant extrusion (4.8%), partial wound dehiscence (4.8%), implant exposure (2.4%) and orbital inflammation (2.4%).
Painful blind eye and atrophia/phthisis bulbi due to ocular trauma and surgical diseases represent the most common indications for ocular evisceration. If malignant intraocular tumours can be excluded, evisceration surgery combined with a silicon-based orbital implant is a safe and effective procedure.