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      CellProfiler: image analysis software for identifying and quantifying cell phenotypes

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          Abstract

          CellProfiler, the first free, open-source system for flexible and high-throughput cell image analysis is described.

          Abstract

          Biologists can now prepare and image thousands of samples per day using automation, enabling chemical screens and functional genomics (for example, using RNA interference). Here we describe the first free, open-source system designed for flexible, high-throughput cell image analysis, CellProfiler. CellProfiler can address a variety of biological questions quantitatively, including standard assays (for example, cell count, size, per-cell protein levels) and complex morphological assays (for example, cell/organelle shape or subcellular patterns of DNA or protein staining).

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          Most cited references 59

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          Causal protein-signaling networks derived from multiparameter single-cell data.

          Machine learning was applied for the automated derivation of causal influences in cellular signaling networks. This derivation relied on the simultaneous measurement of multiple phosphorylated protein and phospholipid components in thousands of individual primary human immune system cells. Perturbing these cells with molecular interventions drove the ordering of connections between pathway components, wherein Bayesian network computational methods automatically elucidated most of the traditionally reported signaling relationships and predicted novel interpathway network causalities, which we verified experimentally. Reconstruction of network models from physiologically relevant primary single cells might be applied to understanding native-state tissue signaling biology, complex drug actions, and dysfunctional signaling in diseased cells.
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            Multidimensional drug profiling by automated microscopy.

            We present a method for high-throughput cytological profiling by microscopy. Our system provides quantitative multidimensional measures of individual cell states over wide ranges of perturbations. We profile dose-dependent phenotypic effects of drugs in human cell culture with a titration-invariant similarity score (TISS). This method successfully categorized blinded drugs and suggested targets for drugs of uncertain mechanism. Multivariate single-cell analysis is a starting point for identifying relationships among drug effects at a systems level and a step toward phenotypic profiling at the single-cell level. Our methods will be useful for discovering the mechanism and predicting the toxicity of new drugs.
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              A functional genomic analysis of cell morphology using RNA interference

               AA Kiger,  B Baum,  S S Jones (2003)
              Background The diversity of metazoan cell shapes is influenced by the dynamic cytoskeletal network. With the advent of RNA-interference (RNAi) technology, it is now possible to screen systematically for genes controlling specific cell-biological processes, including those required to generate distinct morphologies. Results We adapted existing RNAi technology in Drosophila cell culture for use in high-throughput screens to enable a comprehensive genetic dissection of cell morphogenesis. To identify genes responsible for the characteristic shape of two morphologically distinct cell lines, we performed RNAi screens in each line with a set of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting 994 predicted cell shape regulators. Using automated fluorescence microscopy to visualize actin filaments, microtubules and DNA, we detected morphological phenotypes for 160 genes, one-third of which have not been previously characterized in vivo. Genes with similar phenotypes corresponded to known components of pathways controlling cytoskeletal organization and cell shape, leading us to propose similar functions for previously uncharacterized genes. Furthermore, we were able to uncover genes acting within a specific pathway using a co-RNAi screen to identify dsRNA suppressors of a cell shape change induced by Pten dsRNA. Conclusions Using RNAi, we identified genes that influence cytoskeletal organization and morphology in two distinct cell types. Some genes exhibited similar RNAi phenotypes in both cell types, while others appeared to have cell-type-specific functions, in part reflecting the different mechanisms used to generate a round or a flat cell morphology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genome Biol
                Genome Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1465-6906
                1465-6914
                2006
                31 October 2006
                : 7
                : 10
                : R100
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
                [2 ]Computer Sciences and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
                [3 ]Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
                [4 ]Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
                Article
                gb-2006-7-10-r100
                10.1186/gb-2006-7-10-r100
                1794559
                17076895
                Copyright © 2006 Carpenter et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Software

                Genetics

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