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Clinical, blood gas and biochemical profile of diarrheic dairy calves fed starter concentrate containing citrus pulp as a replacement for corn Translated title: Perfis clínico de gás sanguíneo e bioquímico de bezerros leiteiros diarreicos alimentados com concentrado inicial contendo polpa cítrica como substituto de milho

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      Abstract

      ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, gas analysis, and metabolic effects of diarrhea in milk-fed calves consuming starter feed containing citrus pulp (CP) as a replacement for corn. Twenty-four newborn Holstein male calves were distributed into treatments according to starter composition: (1) 0% CP, (2) 32% CP, (3) 64% CP, on dry matter basis. The calves were housed in individual hutches, with free access to water and concentrate, and received 4 L/d of milk replacer. After diarrhea diagnosis, evaluations of fecal score, score of clinical signs and measurement of physiological parameters were performed three times a day during 3-d. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes, blood gases, and plasma biochemical analysis. Starter feed composition had no negative effect (P>0.05) on fecal score, characteristics of diarrheic stools and on the aggravation of diarrhea clinical signs. Biochemical, blood gases and electrolytes changes, as a function of starter composition, did not resulted (P>0.05) in dehydration, acidosis, or other metabolic disturbance animals. Total lactate and D-lactate plasma concentrations were higher for calves on control and 64% CP, and L-lactate was highest for the 64% CP; however, calves showed no signs of metabolic acidosis. Thermal comfort indexes influenced clinical and physiological parameters (P<0.05). Citrus pulp may replace corn in starter composition without prejudice to intestinal health or metabolism of young diarrheic calves.

      Translated abstract

      RESUMO: O objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os sinais clínicos, análise de gases e os efeitos metabólicos da diarreia em bezerros em aleitamento, consumindo concentrado inicial contendo polpa cítrica (PC) como substituto de milho. Vinte e quatro bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa foram distribuídos, de acordo com a composição do concentrado, nos seguintes tratamentos: (1) 0% PC, (2) 32% PC, (3) 64% PC, na matéria seca. Os bezerros foram alojados em abrigos individuais, com acesso livre a água e concentrado, e receberam 4L/d de sucedâneo lácteo. Após o diagnóstico de diarreia, avaliações de escore fecal, sinais clínicos e medidas de parâmetros fisiológicos foram realizadas três vezes ao dia durante 3-d. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise de eletrólitos, hemogasometria e metabólitos plasmáticos. A composição do concentrado não afetou o escore fecal, as características das fezes diarreicas, ou o agravamento dos sinais clínicos da diarreia (P>0,05). Alterações nos parâmetros plasmáticos, de hemogasometria ou de eletrólitos, em função da composição do concentrado, não resultaram em desidratação, acidose ou outro distúrbio metabólico nos bezerros diarreicos (P>0,05). As concentrações de lactato total e D-lactato foram superiores para bezerros alimentados com concentrado sem inclusão de polpa ou com 64% de inclusão, enquanto a concentração de L-lactato foi superior somente para aqueles consumindo concentrado com 64% de PC. No entanto, os bezerros não apresentaram sinais de acidose metabólica. Os índices de conforto térmico influenciaram os parâmetros clínicos e fisiológicos (P<0,05). A polpa cítrica pode substituir o milho na composição de concentrados para bezerros sem prejudicar a saúde intestinal ou o metabolismo de bezerros jovens acometidos por diarreia.

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      Most cited references 38

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      The Discomfort Index

       E. Thom (1959)
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        Influence of D-lactate on metabolic acidosis and on prognosis in neonatal calves with diarrhoea.

         I Lorenz (2004)
        Three hundred bucket-fed diarrhoeic calves up to the age of 21 days were used to investigate the degree in which D-lactic acid contributes to metabolic acidosis in bucket-fed calves with naturally acquired neonatal diarrhoea. Fifty-five percent of all diarrhoeic calves had serum D-lactate concentrations higher than 3 mmol/l. Mean (+/-SD) D-lactate values were 5.7 mmol/l (+/-5.3, median: 4.1 mmol/l). D-lactate values were distributed over the entire range of detected values from 0 to 17.8 mmol/l in calves with base excess of -10 to -25 mmol/l. Serum D-lactate concentration was higher in patients with ruminal acidosis (6.6 +/- 5.2 mmol/l; median: 5.9 mmol/l) than in those with physiological rumen pH (5.3 +/- 5.4 mmol/l; median: 3.7 mmol/l). There was no evidence of a correlation (r = 0.051) between the serum levels of D-lactate and creatinine (as an indicator of dehydration). D-lactate was correlated significantly with both base excess (r = -0.685) and anion gap (r = 0.647). The proportion of cured patients was not significantly different between the groups with elevated (>3 mmol/l) and normal serum D-lactate concentrations. This study shows that hyper-D-lactataemia occurs frequently in diarrhoeic calves, has no impact on prognosis but may contribute to the clinical picture associated with metabolic acidosis in these animals.
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          A retrospective study of the relationship between clinical signs and severity of acidosis in diarrheic calves.

           Amy Naylor (1989)
          A retrospective study of 123 calves under two months of age with signs of diarrhea was performed to investigate the relationships among the calf's demeanor, dehydration, rectal temperature, and base deficit. The severity of dehydration, hypothermia, and metabolic acidosis were associated with level of depression. Clinical signs and age of calf could be used to predict the severity of acidosis. Acidosis was more severe in calves over eight days of age and also increased in severity with the degree of depression. The most severe metabolic acidosis was seen in calves over eight days of age presented in sternal or lateral recumbency; the base deficit in these groups was 16.3 +/- 8.3 (means +/- 1SD) and 20.3 +/- 10.1 mmol/L respectively, and on average these calves require 2.4 and 3.0 L respectively of 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution to correct the acidosis.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Piracicaba orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz orgdiv2Departamento de Zootecnia Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            pvb
            Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
            Pesq. Vet. Bras.
            Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
            0100-736X
            1678-5150
            August 2017
            : 37
            : 8
            : 790-796
            S0100-736X2017000800790
            10.1590/s0100-736x2017000800002

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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