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      Clinical, blood gas and biochemical profile of diarrheic dairy calves fed starter concentrate containing citrus pulp as a replacement for corn Translated title: Perfis clínico de gás sanguíneo e bioquímico de bezerros leiteiros diarreicos alimentados com concentrado inicial contendo polpa cítrica como substituto de milho

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, gas analysis, and metabolic effects of diarrhea in milk-fed calves consuming starter feed containing citrus pulp (CP) as a replacement for corn. Twenty-four newborn Holstein male calves were distributed into treatments according to starter composition: (1) 0% CP, (2) 32% CP, (3) 64% CP, on dry matter basis. The calves were housed in individual hutches, with free access to water and concentrate, and received 4 L/d of milk replacer. After diarrhea diagnosis, evaluations of fecal score, score of clinical signs and measurement of physiological parameters were performed three times a day during 3-d. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes, blood gases, and plasma biochemical analysis. Starter feed composition had no negative effect (P>0.05) on fecal score, characteristics of diarrheic stools and on the aggravation of diarrhea clinical signs. Biochemical, blood gases and electrolytes changes, as a function of starter composition, did not resulted (P>0.05) in dehydration, acidosis, or other metabolic disturbance animals. Total lactate and D-lactate plasma concentrations were higher for calves on control and 64% CP, and L-lactate was highest for the 64% CP; however, calves showed no signs of metabolic acidosis. Thermal comfort indexes influenced clinical and physiological parameters (P<0.05). Citrus pulp may replace corn in starter composition without prejudice to intestinal health or metabolism of young diarrheic calves.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: O objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os sinais clínicos, análise de gases e os efeitos metabólicos da diarreia em bezerros em aleitamento, consumindo concentrado inicial contendo polpa cítrica (PC) como substituto de milho. Vinte e quatro bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa foram distribuídos, de acordo com a composição do concentrado, nos seguintes tratamentos: (1) 0% PC, (2) 32% PC, (3) 64% PC, na matéria seca. Os bezerros foram alojados em abrigos individuais, com acesso livre a água e concentrado, e receberam 4L/d de sucedâneo lácteo. Após o diagnóstico de diarreia, avaliações de escore fecal, sinais clínicos e medidas de parâmetros fisiológicos foram realizadas três vezes ao dia durante 3-d. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise de eletrólitos, hemogasometria e metabólitos plasmáticos. A composição do concentrado não afetou o escore fecal, as características das fezes diarreicas, ou o agravamento dos sinais clínicos da diarreia (P>0,05). Alterações nos parâmetros plasmáticos, de hemogasometria ou de eletrólitos, em função da composição do concentrado, não resultaram em desidratação, acidose ou outro distúrbio metabólico nos bezerros diarreicos (P>0,05). As concentrações de lactato total e D-lactato foram superiores para bezerros alimentados com concentrado sem inclusão de polpa ou com 64% de inclusão, enquanto a concentração de L-lactato foi superior somente para aqueles consumindo concentrado com 64% de PC. No entanto, os bezerros não apresentaram sinais de acidose metabólica. Os índices de conforto térmico influenciaram os parâmetros clínicos e fisiológicos (P<0,05). A polpa cítrica pode substituir o milho na composição de concentrados para bezerros sem prejudicar a saúde intestinal ou o metabolismo de bezerros jovens acometidos por diarreia.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The Discomfort Index

           E. Thom (1959)
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            Influence of D-lactate on metabolic acidosis and on prognosis in neonatal calves with diarrhoea.

             I Lorenz (2004)
            Three hundred bucket-fed diarrhoeic calves up to the age of 21 days were used to investigate the degree in which D-lactic acid contributes to metabolic acidosis in bucket-fed calves with naturally acquired neonatal diarrhoea. Fifty-five percent of all diarrhoeic calves had serum D-lactate concentrations higher than 3 mmol/l. Mean (+/-SD) D-lactate values were 5.7 mmol/l (+/-5.3, median: 4.1 mmol/l). D-lactate values were distributed over the entire range of detected values from 0 to 17.8 mmol/l in calves with base excess of -10 to -25 mmol/l. Serum D-lactate concentration was higher in patients with ruminal acidosis (6.6 +/- 5.2 mmol/l; median: 5.9 mmol/l) than in those with physiological rumen pH (5.3 +/- 5.4 mmol/l; median: 3.7 mmol/l). There was no evidence of a correlation (r = 0.051) between the serum levels of D-lactate and creatinine (as an indicator of dehydration). D-lactate was correlated significantly with both base excess (r = -0.685) and anion gap (r = 0.647). The proportion of cured patients was not significantly different between the groups with elevated (>3 mmol/l) and normal serum D-lactate concentrations. This study shows that hyper-D-lactataemia occurs frequently in diarrhoeic calves, has no impact on prognosis but may contribute to the clinical picture associated with metabolic acidosis in these animals.
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              Further studies on the clinical features and clinicopathological findings of a syndrome of metabolic acidosis with minimal dehydration in neonatal calves.

               T Kasari,  Amy Naylor (1986)
              A syndrome of metabolic acidosis of unknown etiology was diagnosed in twelve beef calves 7 to 31 days old. Principal clinical signs were unconsciousness or depression concomitant with weakness and ataxia. Other signs included weak or absent suckle and menace reflexes, succussable nontympanic fluid sounds in the anterior abdomen, and a slow, deep thoracic and abdominal pattern of respiration. The variation in clinical signs between calves was highly correlated (r = 0.87, P less than 0.001) with their acid-base (base deficit) status. Abnormal laboratory findings included reduced venous blood pH, pCO2 and bicarbonate ion concentration as well as hyperchloremia, elevated blood urea nitrogen, increased anion gap and neutrophilic leukocytosis with a left shift. Sodium bicarbonate solution administered intravenously effectively raised blood pH and improved demeanor, ambulation and appetite. All calves did well following a return to a normal acid-base status.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Piracicaba orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz orgdiv2Departamento de Zootecnia Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pvb
                Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira
                Pesq. Vet. Bras.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0100-736X
                1678-5150
                August 2017
                : 37
                : 8
                : 790-796
                S0100-736X2017000800790 10.1590/s0100-736x2017000800002

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 7
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                Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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