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      Linguistic potential of COVID-19 neologisms in the metaphoric language of socio-political discourse

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          Abstract

          The purpose of the study is to investigate the features of the vocabulary of COVID-19 in English, which is an international language of borrowings. The secondary objective is to obtain new data on the emergence of a new vocabulary during the global problem of the COVID-19 pandemic. The method of lexical semantics analysis was used; 77 lexical units within the framework of the socio-political discourse have been considered in the course of the discursive text analysis. The most relevant categories of neologisms associated with COVID-19 were identified, and their word-formation models were analyzed. The active borrowing of COVID-19 vocabulary began from the English language. Based on the changes in the lifestyle, daily routine, and statuses of citizens, five categories and four groups of neologisms have been identified. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the vocabulary of the COVID-19 period as new lexical units constantly appear and require their consideration within the framework of the linguistic potential and vocabulary of the languages found in the world. The study is important for replenishing the theoretical and practical base in the field of lexicology (processes of neologization, lexical borrowings, semantic features of new lexical units and their functions), media linguistics, journalism, and sociology as it takes into account socio-political factors.

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          The Efficacy of Lockdown Against COVID-19: A Cross-Country Panel Analysis

          Background There has been much debate about the effectiveness of lockdown measures in containing COVID-19, and their appropriateness given the economic and social cost they entail. To the best of our knowledge, no existing contribution to the literature has attempted to gauge the effectiveness of lockdown measures over time in a longitudinal cross-country perspective. Objectives This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature by assessing, at an international level, the effect of lockdown measures (or the lack of such measures) on the numbers of new infections. Given this policy’s expected change in effectiveness over time, we also measure the effect of having a lockdown implemented over a given number of days (from 7 to 20 days). Methods We pursue our objectives by means of a quantitative panel analysis, building a longitudinal dataset with observations from countries all over the world, and estimating the impact of lockdown via feasible generalized least squares fixed effect, random effects, generalized estimating equation, and hierarchical linear models. Results Our results show that lockdown is effective in reducing the number of new cases in the countries that implement it, compared with those countries that do not. This is especially true around 10 days after the implementation of the policy. Its efficacy continues to grow up to 20 days after implementation. Conclusion Results suggest that lockdown is effective in reducing the R0, i.e. the number of people infected by each infected person, and that, unlike what has been suggested in previous analyses, its efficacy continues to hold 20 days after the introduction of the policy. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s40258-020-00596-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

            The present study provides an overview of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has rapidly extended globally within a short period. COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2). SARS-CoV-2 is different from usual coronaviruses responsible for mild sickness such as common cold among human beings. It is crucial to understand the impact and outcome of this pandemic. We therefore overview the changes in the curves of COVID-19 confirmed cases and fatality rate in China and outside of China from 31st of December 2019 to 25th of March 2020. We also aimed to assess the temporal developments and death rate of COVID-19 in China and worldwide. More than 414,179 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported in 197 countries, including 81,848 cases in China and 332,331 outside of China. Furthermore, 18,440 infected patients died from COVID-19 infection; 3,287 cases were from China and 15,153 fatalities were reported worldwide. Among the worldwide infected cases, 113,802 patients have been recovered and discharged from different hospitals. Effective prevention and control measures should be taken to control the disease. The presented Chinese model (protocol) of disease prevention and control could be utilized in order to curb the pandemic situation.
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              Doing Discourse Analysis: Methods for Studying Action in Talk and Text

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                CTP
                spctp
                Communication and the Public
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2057-0473
                2057-0481
                25 July 2023
                25 July 2023
                : 20570473231186475
                Affiliations
                [1-20570473231186475]Linguistics University of Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation
                [2-20570473231186475]Almaty branch of the St. Petersburg Humanitarian University of Trade Unions, Kazakhstan
                Author notes
                [*]Andrey Ivanov, The International Scientific Laboratory ‘Basic and Applied Linguistic Research’, Linguistics University of Nizhny Novgorod, 31A, Minin street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603155, Russian Federation. Emails: andrivanov8@ 123456rambler.ru ; holzmann2014@ 123456yandex.ru
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5400-5198
                Article
                10.1177_20570473231186475
                10.1177/20570473231186475
                10372504
                48cd7aa0-2256-49cf-8376-e6a9c7302441
                © The Author(s) 2023

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

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                Original Research Article
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                covid-19,lexeme,metaphoric language,neologism,semantics of lexemes

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