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      Syncope in a child

      Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
      Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
      Advanced heart block, rheumatic fever, syncope

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          Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a well-characterized illness. However, syncope in ARF due to advanced heart block is very rare. A 10-year-old boy was admitted with recurrent syncope for 12 h. The patient was diagnosed as ARF because of arthritis, elevated acute phase reactants, advanced heart block, high antistreptolysin O titer, and echocardiographic evidence of mitral regurgitation. On the 9 th day of hospitalization, the electrocardiogram revealed normal sinus rhythm.

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          Most cited references9

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          Guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Jones Criteria, 1992 update. Special Writing Group of the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young of the American Heart Association.

          The Jones Criteria for guidance in the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever were first published by T. Duckett Jones, MD, in 1944 and have been revised over the years by the American Heart Association. The current guidelines are an update of these criteria. For the first time, the guidelines are designed to establish the initial attack of acute rheumatic fever. Major manifestations, minor manifestations, and supporting evidence of antecedent group A streptococcal infection are discussed. These updated guidelines expand on the available tools to diagnose streptococcal pharyngitis and clarify the available antibody tests for detecting antecedent group A streptococcal infection. At the present time echocardiography without accompanying auscultatory findings is insufficient to be the sole criterion for valvulitis in acute rheumatic fever. Finally, this article addresses overdiagnosis of rheumatic fever and lists exceptions to the Jones Criteria, including recurrent attacks in individuals with a history of rheumatic fever.
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            Atrioventricular conduction in acute rheumatic fever.

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              Advanced atrioventricular conduction block in acute rheumatic fever.

              We carried out a retrospective case control analysis to evaluate the outcome, and the need for treatment, of problems with atrioventricular conduction occurring during an acute attack of rheumatic fever, assessing the occurrence of second and third atrioventricular block versus first degree block. We reviewed and analysed the clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic records of all children diagnosed in a single institute as having acute rheumatic fever during a period of seven consecutive years. During the period from October, 1994, through October, 2001, 65 children meeting the modified Jones criterions for acute rheumatic fever were hospitalized in the Soroka University Medical Center, Israel. First-degree atrioventricular block was identified in 72.3% of the children, and resolved with no specific treatment other than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Second-degree atrioventricular block of Mobitz type I, was observed in one child (1.5%), which progressed from first-degree block, and subsequently resolved. Complete atrioventricuar block was found in 3 children (4.6%), one progressing from Mobitz type I second-degree block, and two being seen as the first presentation. Of the three children with complete atrioventricular block, one patient was not treated, the second was treated with aspirin, and the final one with combined aspirin and steroids. The disturbances of conduction resolved in all three. We conclude that advanced atrioventricular block is rare during acute rheumatic fever. If occurring, block appears to be temporary, and resolves with conventional anti-inflammatory treatment. Specific treatment, such as insertion of a temporary pacemaker, should be considered only when syncope or clinical symptoms persist.

                Author and article information

                Ann Pediatr Cardiol
                Ann Pediatr Cardiol
                Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Jan-Jun 2013
                : 6
                : 1
                : 93-94
                [1]Department of Cardiology, Burdwan Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Goutam Datta, P3 Lake Gardens Govt. Housing, 48/4 Sultan Alam Road, Calcutta - 33, West Bengal, India. E-mail: goutamdattadn@ 123456yahoo.in
                Copyright: © Annals of Pediatric Cardiology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Case Report

                Cardiovascular Medicine
                advanced heart block,rheumatic fever,syncope
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                advanced heart block, rheumatic fever, syncope


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