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      Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance


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          Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis.

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          Most cited references147

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          Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota.

          Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.
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            Quorum-sensing signals indicate that cystic fibrosis lungs are infected with bacterial biofilms.

            The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa permanently colonizes cystic fibrosis lungs despite aggressive antibiotic treatment. This suggests that P. aeruginosa might exist as biofilms--structured communities of bacteria encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix--in the cystic fibrosis lung. Consistent with this hypothesis, microscopy of cystic fibrosis sputum shows that P. aeruginosa are in biofilm-like structures. P. aeruginosa uses extracellular quorum-sensing signals (extracellular chemical signals that cue cell-density-dependent gene expression) to coordinate biofilm formation. Here we found that cystic fibrosis sputum produces the two principal P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing signals; however, the relative abundance of these signals was opposite to that of the standard P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in laboratory broth culture. When P. aeruginosa sputum isolates were grown in broth, some showed quorum-sensing signal ratios like those of the laboratory strain. When we grew these isolates and PAO1 in a laboratory biofilm model, the signal ratios were like those in cystic fibrosis sputum. Our data support the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa are in a biofilm in cystic fibrosis sputum. Moreover, quorum-sensing signal profiling of specific P. aeruginosa strains may serve as a biomarker in screens to identify agents that interfere with biofilm development.
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              Genetic control of Candida albicans biofilm development.

              Candida species cause frequent infections owing to their ability to form biofilms - surface-associated microbial communities - primarily on implanted medical devices. Increasingly, mechanistic studies have identified the gene products that participate directly in the development of Candida albicans biofilms, as well as the regulatory circuitry and networks that control their expression and activity. These studies have uncovered new mechanisms and signals that govern C. albicans biofilm development and associated drug resistance, thus providing biological insight and therapeutic foresight.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                J Fungi (Basel)
                J Fungi (Basel)
                Journal of Fungi
                21 February 2017
                March 2017
                : 3
                : 1
                : 8
                Centre of Biological Engineering (CEB), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; c.fortunae@ 123456gmail.com (C.F.R.); daniela.araujo@ 123456ceb.uminho.pt (D.A.); elisarodrigues@ 123456deb.uminho.pt (M.E.R.); mcrh@ 123456deb.uminho.pt (M.H.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: soniasilva@ 123456deb.uminho.pt ; Tel.: +351-253-604-408; Fax: +351-253-604-429
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 23 December 2016
                : 09 February 2017

                candidiasis, biofilm, resistance, mechanisms


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