74
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: : Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.)

      , , , , , , , , , the A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors, the American College of Critical Care Medicine

      Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

      SAGE Publications

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 240

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Soluble proteins produced by probiotic bacteria regulate intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth.

          Increased inflammatory cytokine levels and intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis leading to disruption of epithelial integrity are major pathologic factors in inflammatory bowel diseases. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and factors recovered from LGG broth culture supernatant (LGG-s) prevent cytokine-induced apoptosis in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells by regulating signaling pathways. Here, we purify and characterize 2 secreted LGG proteins that regulate intestinal epithelial cell antiapoptotic and proliferation responses. LGG proteins were purified from LGG-s, analyzed, and used to generate polyclonal antibodies for immunodepletion of respective proteins from LGG-conditioned cell culture media (CM). Mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured colon explants were treated with purified proteins in the absence or presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Akt activation, proliferation, tissue injury, apoptosis, and caspase-3 activation were determined. We purified 2 novel proteins, p75 (75 kilodaltons) and p40 (40 kilodaltons), from LGG-s. Each of these purified protein preparations activated Akt, inhibited cytokine-induced epithelial cell apoptosis, and promoted cell growth in human and mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured mouse colon explants. TNF-induced colon epithelial damage was significantly reduced by p75 and p40. Immunodepletion of p75 and p40 from LGG-CM reversed LGG-CM activation of Akt and its inhibitory effects on cytokine-induced apoptosis and loss of intestinal epithelial cells. p75 and p40 are the first probiotic bacterial proteins demonstrated to promote intestinal epithelial homeostasis through specific signaling pathways. These findings suggest that probiotic bacterial components may be useful for preventing cytokine-mediated gastrointestinal diseases.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces postoperative septic complications. The results of a meta-analysis.

            This two-part meta-analysis combined data from eight prospective randomized trials designed to compare the nutritional efficacy of early enteral (TEN) and parenteral (TPN) nutrition in high-risk surgical patients. The combined data gave sufficient patient numbers (TEN, n = 118; TPN, n = 112) to adequately address whether route of substrate delivery affected septic complication incidence. Phase I (dropouts excluded) meta-analysis confirmed data homogeneity across study sites, that TEN and TPN groups were comparable, and that significantly fewer TEN patients experienced septic complications (TEN, 18%; TPN, 35%; p = 0.01). Phase II meta-analysis, an intent-to-treat analysis (dropouts included), confirmed that fewer TEN patients developed septic complications. Further breakdown by patient type showed that all trauma and blunt trauma subgroups had the most significant reduction in septic complications when fed enterally. In conclusion, this meta-analysis attests to the feasibility of early postoperative TEN in high-risk surgical patients and that these patients have reduced septic morbidity rates compared with those administered TPN.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. The Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group.

               G. Buzby (1991)
              We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that perioperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) decreases the incidence of serious complications after major abdominal or thoracic surgical procedures in malnourished patients. We studied 395 malnourished patients (99 percent of them male) who required laparotomy or noncardiac thoracotomy. They were randomly assigned to receive either TPN for 7 to 15 days before surgery and 3 days afterward (the TPN group) or no perioperative TPN (the control group). The patients were monitored for complications for 90 days after surgery. The rates of major complications during the first 30 days after surgery in the two groups were similar (TPN group, 25.5 percent; control group, 24.6 percent), as were the overall 90-day mortality rates (13.4 percent and 10.5 percent, respectively). There were more infectious complications in the TPN group than in the controls (14.1 vs. 6.4 percent; P = 0.01; relative risk, 2.20; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.19 to 4.05), but slightly more noninfectious complications in the control group (16.7 vs. 22.2 percent; P = 0.20; relative risk, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.13). The increased rate of infections was confined to patients categorized as either borderline or mildly malnourished, according to Subjective Global Assessment or an objective nutritional assessment, and these patients had no demonstrable benefit from TPN. In contrast, severely malnourished patients who received TPN had fewer noninfectious complications than controls (5 vs. 43 percent; P = 0.03; relative risk, 0.12; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.02 to 0.91), with no concomitant increase in infectious complications. The use of preoperative TPN should be limited to patients who are severely malnourished unless there are other specific indications.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
                JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
                SAGE Publications
                0148-6071
                1941-2444
                April 27 2009
                May 2009
                April 27 2009
                May 2009
                : 33
                : 3
                : 277-316
                Article
                10.1177/0148607109335234
                19398613
                © 2009

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 2,807

                Cited by 229

                Most referenced authors 3,776