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      Nitrogen Can Alleviate the Inhibition of Photosynthesis Caused by High Temperature Stress under Both Steady-State and Flecked Irradiance

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          Abstract

          Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for plants and is closely related to photosynthesis. High temperature stress significantly inhibits photosynthesis under both steady-state and flecked irradiance. However, it is not known whether nitrogen can affect the decrease in photosynthesis caused by high temperature, especially under flecked irradiance. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted under two nitrogen (N) supplies with rice plants, and the steady-state and dynamic photosynthesis rates were measured under 28 and 40°C. High temperature significantly increased leaf hydraulic conductance ( K leaf) under high N supply (HN) but not under low N supply (LN). The increased K leaf maintained a constant leaf water potential (Ψ leaf) and steady-state stomatal conductance ( g s,sat) under HN, while the Ψ leaf and g s,sat significantly decreased under high temperature in LN conditions. This resulted in a more severe decrease in steady-state photosynthesis ( A sat) under high temperature in the LN conditions. After shifting from low to high light, high temperature significantly delayed the recovery of photosynthesis, which resulted in more carbon loss under flecked irradiance. These effects were obtained under HN to a lesser extent than under LN supply. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen can alleviate the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by high temperature stress under both steady-state and flecked irradiance.

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          Most cited references 43

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          A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C 3 species.

          Various aspects of the biochemistry of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants are integrated into a form compatible with studies of gas exchange in leaves. These aspects include the kinetic properties of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase; the requirements of the photosynthetic carbon reduction and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycles for reduced pyridine nucleotides; the dependence of electron transport on photon flux and the presence of a temperature dependent upper limit to electron transport. The measurements of gas exchange with which the model outputs may be compared include those of the temperature and partial pressure of CO2(p(CO2)) dependencies of quantum yield, the variation of compensation point with temperature and partial pressure of O2(p(O2)), the dependence of net CO2 assimilation rate on p(CO2) and irradiance, and the influence of p(CO2) and irradiance on the temperature dependence of assimilation rate.
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            Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming.

            The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35 degrees C and 1.13 degrees C, respectively, for the period 1979-2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1 degrees C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming.
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              The temperature response of C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis.

              We review the current understanding of the temperature responses of C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis across thermal ranges that do not harm the photosynthetic apparatus. In C(3) species, photosynthesis is classically considered to be limited by the capacities of ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration or P(i) regeneration. Using both theoretical and empirical evidence, we describe the temperature response of instantaneous net CO(2) assimilation rate (A) in terms of these limitations, and evaluate possible limitations on A at elevated temperatures arising from heat-induced lability of Rubisco activase. In C(3) plants, Rubisco capacity is the predominant limitation on A across a wide range of temperatures at low CO(2) (<300 microbar), while at elevated CO(2), the limitation shifts to P(i) regeneration capacity at suboptimal temperatures, and either electron transport capacity or Rubisco activase capacity at supraoptimal temperatures. In C(4) plants, Rubisco capacity limits A below 20 degrees C in chilling-tolerant species, but the control over A at elevated temperature remains uncertain. Acclimation of C(3) photosynthesis to suboptimal growth temperature is commonly associated with a disproportional enhancement of the P(i) regeneration capacity. Above the thermal optimum, acclimation of A to increasing growth temperature is associated with increased electron transport capacity and/or greater heat stability of Rubisco activase. In many C(4) species from warm habitats, acclimation to cooler growth conditions increases levels of Rubisco and C(4) cycle enzymes which then enhance A below the thermal optimum. By contrast, few C(4) species adapted to cooler habitats increase Rubisco content during acclimation to reduced growth temperature; as a result, A changes little at suboptimal temperatures. Global change is likely to cause a widespread shift in patterns of photosynthetic limitation in higher plants. Limitations in electron transport and Rubisco activase capacity should be more common in the warmer, high CO(2) conditions expected by the end of the century.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                06 June 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: William Walter Adams III, University of Colorado Boulder, United States

                Reviewed by: Christine Scoffoni, University of California, Los Angeles, United States; Barry Logan, Bowdoin College, United States

                *Correspondence: Yong Li liyong@ 123456mail.hzau.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Plant Abiotic Stress, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2017.00945
                5459896
                Copyright © 2017 Huang, Zhang, Wei, Peng and Li.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Equations: 7, References: 45, Pages: 9, Words: 6822
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Funded by: Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of the People's Republic of China 10.13039/501100003181
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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