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      Direct 4D printing via active composite materials


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          A 4D printing method is developed where the shape of a 3D-printed part can change rapidly into a new permanent one by heating.


          We describe an approach to print composite polymers in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can be rapidly transformed to a new permanent configuration directly by heating. The permanent shape of a component results from the programmed time evolution of the printed shape upon heating via the design of the architecture and process parameters of a composite consisting of a glassy shape memory polymer and an elastomer that is programmed with a built-in compressive strain during photopolymerization. Upon heating, the shape memory polymer softens, releases the constraint on the strained elastomer, and allows the object to transform into a new permanent shape, which can then be reprogrammed into multiple subsequent shapes. Our key advance, the markedly simplified creation of high-resolution complex 3D reprogrammable structures, promises to enable myriad applications across domains, including medical technology, aerospace, and consumer products, and even suggests a new paradigm in product design, where components are simultaneously designed to inhabit multiple configurations during service.

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          Most cited references35

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          An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots.

          Soft robots possess many attributes that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with conventional robots composed of rigid materials. Yet, despite recent advances, soft robots must still be tethered to hard robotic control systems and power sources. New strategies for creating completely soft robots, including soft analogues of these crucial components, are needed to realize their full potential. Here we report the untethered operation of a robot composed solely of soft materials. The robot is controlled with microfluidic logic that autonomously regulates fluid flow and, hence, catalytic decomposition of an on-board monopropellant fuel supply. Gas generated from the fuel decomposition inflates fluidic networks downstream of the reaction sites, resulting in actuation. The body and microfluidic logic of the robot are fabricated using moulding and soft lithography, respectively, and the pneumatic actuator networks, on-board fuel reservoirs and catalytic reaction chambers needed for movement are patterned within the body via a multi-material, embedded 3D printing technique. The fluidic and elastomeric architectures required for function span several orders of magnitude from the microscale to the macroscale. Our integrated design and rapid fabrication approach enables the programmable assembly of multiple materials within this architecture, laying the foundation for completely soft, autonomous robots.
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            Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers

            We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.
              • Record: found
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              Recent progress in shape memory polymer: New behavior, enabling materials, and mechanistic understanding


                Author and article information

                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                April 2017
                12 April 2017
                : 3
                : 4
                : e1602890
                [1 ]SUTD Digital Manufacturing and Design Centre, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore.
                [2 ]The George Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA.
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China.
                [4 ]School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                []Corresponding author. Email: qih@ 123456me.gatech.edu (H.J.Q.); martin_dunn@ 123456sutd.edu.sg (M.L.D.)
                Author information
                Copyright © 2017, The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 November 2016
                : 17 February 2017
                Funded by: Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US);
                Award ID: ID0EPUBG15881
                Award ID: 15RT0885
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000147, Division of Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation;
                Award ID: ID0E21BG15882
                Award ID: 1462894, 1462895
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001381, National Research Foundation Singapore;
                Award ID: ID0EKBAI15883
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
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                Materials Engineering
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                Justin Noriel

                4d printing,3d printing,multifunctional materials,active materials,active origami


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