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      The metabotropic glutamate receptors: Structure and functions

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      Neuropharmacology

      Elsevier BV

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          Cloning and characterization of an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid.

          Maintenance of a stable internal environment within complex organisms requires specialized cells that sense changes in the extracellular concentration of specific ions (such as Ca2+). Although the molecular nature of such ion sensors is unknown, parathyroid cells possess a cell surface Ca(2+)-sensing mechanism that also recognizes trivalent and polyvalent cations (such as neomycin) and couples by changes in phosphoinositide turnover and cytosolic Ca2+ to regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. The latter restores normocalcaemia by acting on kidney and bone. We now report the cloning of complementary DNA encoding an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor from bovine parathyroid with pharmacological and functional properties nearly identical to those of the native receptor. The novel approximately 120K receptor shares limited similarity with the metabotropic glutamate receptors and features a large extracellular domain, containing clusters of acidic amino-acid residues possibly involved in calcium binding, coupled to a seven-membrane-spanning domain like those in the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily.
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            Cloned glutamate receptors.

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              Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling.

              The finding that astrocytes possess glutamate-sensitive ion channels hinted at a previously unrecognized signaling role for these cells. Now it is reported that cultured hippocampal astrocytes can respond to glutamate with a prompt and oscillatory elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, visible through use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3. Two types of glutamate receptor--one preferring quisqualate and releasing calcium from intracellular stores and the other preferring kainate and promoting surface-membrane calcium influx--appear to be involved. Moreover, glutamate-induced increases in cytoplasmic free calcium frequently propagate as waves within the cytoplasm of individual astrocytes and between adjacent astrocytes in confluent cultures. These propagating waves of calcium suggest that networks of astrocytes may constitute a long-range signaling system within the brain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuropharmacology
                Neuropharmacology
                Elsevier BV
                00283908
                January 1995
                January 1995
                : 34
                : 1
                : 1-26
                Article
                10.1016/0028-3908(94)00129-G
                © 1995

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