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      Levels of Renal and Extrarenal Sympathetic Drive in Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Hypertension

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 29

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          Repeated measurements and multiple comparisons in cardiovascular research.

           J Ludbrook (1994)
          In cardiovascular research, experiments are commonly performed in which repeated measurements are made in the same individual at predetermined intervals of time or at ascending levels of stimulus or dose of drug. The goal is usually to test the effects of treatments or disease state on the time course of the response, or on the stimulus-response relationship. Since the passage of time or the order of stimuli or doses is fixed, statistical analysis of the results of such experiments is associated with an excessive risk of false positive interferences (type I error) unless special precautions are taken. The nature of the statistical problems associated with repeated measures experimental designs, and several solutions to them, have been discussed. An approach much favoured by cardiovascular investigators is to make multiple pairwise contrasts between treatments at each time or dose, or between times or doses within each treatment. This greatly inflates the risk of type I error unless special precautions are taken, and the information provided by making multiple contrasts is of limited value. I believe that repeated measures analysis of variance, with a correction for multisample asphericity, usually provides the most informative and least biased test of the biological hypotheses proposed by cardiovascular investigators. Other analytical techniques, such as comparing areas under curves and regression analysis, have also been discussed. Summary recommendations are given in the table.
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            Splanchnic circulation is a critical neural target in angiotensin II salt hypertension in rats.

            Chronic angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion, in rats fed high salt, engages the sympathetic nervous system to increase venomotor tone. The splanchnic sympathetic nervous system is the most important regulator of venous tone, indicating that splanchnic sympathetic nervous system activity may be increased in Ang II salt hypertension. We hypothesized that celiac ganglionectomy (CGx), to selectively disrupt sympathetic innervation to the splanchnic circulation, would attenuate arterial pressure (AP), and venous tone increases in Ang II salt hypertension. Rats fed 2% or 0.4% NaCl were instrumented to allow AP measurement by radiotelemetry at the same time as surgical CGx or sham operation. Ang II was delivered by minipump (150 ng/kg per minute) for 14 days. CGx reduced AP independent of salt diet during control. CGx markedly attenuated Ang II hypertension in rats on 2% NaCl but had little effect in rats fed 0.4% NaCl. To test the possibility that CGx exerted its effects via renal denervation, rats were subjected to the same protocol but received selective bilateral renal denervation. Renal denervation decreased AP during control but had no protective effect on Ang II hypertension and actually tended to exacerbate the pressor response. Finally, separate groups of rats underwent CGx or sham operation and were instrumented to allow repeated measures of mean circulatory filling pressure, an index of venous tone. In addition to attenuating Ang II salt hypertension, CGx completely prevented Ang II salt-induced increases in mean circulatory filling pressure and substantially attenuated depressor responses to acute ganglion blockade. We conclude that, in the presence of high salt, Ang II activates the splanchnic sympathetic nervous system to increase venomotor tone and AP.
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              Is cytoskeletal tension a major determinant of cell deformability in adherent endothelial cells?

              We tested the hypothesis that mechanical tension in the cytoskeleton (CSK) is a major determinant of cell deformability. To confirm that tension was present in adherent endothelial cells, we either cut or detached them from their basal surface by a microneedle. After cutting or detachment, the cells rapidly retracted. This retraction was prevented, however, if the CSK actin lattice was disrupted by cytochalasin D (Cyto D). These results confirmed that there was preexisting CSK tension in these cells and that the actin lattice was a primary stress-bearing component of the CSK. Second, to determine the extent to which that preexisting CSK tension could alter cell deformability, we developed a stretchable cell culture membrane system to impose a rapid mechanical distension (and presumably a rapid increase in CSK tension) on adherent endothelial cells. Altered cell deformability was quantitated as the shear stiffness measured by magnetic twisting cytometry. When membrane strain increased 2.5 or 5%, the cell stiffness increased 15 and 30%, respectively. Disruption of actin lattice with Cyto D abolished this stretch-induced increase in stiffness, demonstrating that the increased stiffness depended on the integrity of the actin CSK. Permeabilizing the cells with saponin and washing away ATP and Ca2+ did not inhibit the stretch-induced stiffening of the cell. These results suggest that the stretch-induced stiffening was primarily due to the direct mechanical changes in the forces distending the CSK but not to ATP- or Ca(2+)-dependent processes. Taken together, these results suggest preexisting CSK tension is a major determinant of cell deformability in adherent endothelial cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                April 2008
                April 2008
                : 51
                : 4
                : 878-883
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Neuropharmacology Laboratory (S.L.B., J.-L.M., G.A.H.), Baker Heart Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; and the Department of Physiology (R.G.E.), Monash University, Victoria, Australia.
                Article
                10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.100800
                © 2008

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