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      Intraoperative Ketamine and Magnesium Therapy to Control Postoperative Pain After Abdominoplasty and/or Liposuction: A Clinical Randomized Trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          This study aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and ketamine associated with magnesium on opioid consumption and pain scores in patients undergoing abdominoplasty and/or liposuction compared to standard treatment.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 63 patients were included and randomized as follows: 21 patients in the Control group, 20 patients in the Ketamine group (Ket), and 22 patients in the Ketamine-magnesium group (KetMag). The KetMag group received an IV bolus of 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine and 50 mg/kg magnesium, followed by continuous infusion of ketamine (0.15 mg/kg/h) and magnesium (10 mg/kg/h) until extubation. The Ket group received the same bolus and infusion of ketamine, together with a bolus and continuous infusion of placebo instead of magnesium. The Control group received saline instead of ketamine and magnesium. The groups were compared in morphine consumption during the first 12h, body-postoperative pain and disability scale until the 90th day, the time until the first morphine request on the PCA pump, pain scores, and the adverse effects related to the use of study drugs.

          Results

          The KetMag group had a lower morphine consumption by almost 50% during the first 12h than the Control and the Ket groups. In addition, the KetMag group required the first dose of morphine later than the other two groups. There were no differences in the adverse effects of the proposed treatments. Finally, multiple linear regression and a nonlinear approach analysis indicated that the Control group experienced a higher degree of pain and increased morphine consumption per hour than Ket and KetMag groups.

          Conclusion

          Co-administration of intraoperative ketamine plus magnesium and ketamine alone are an effective and easy regime for reducing pain and opioid consumption in the postoperative period.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Is It Really Robust?

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            A systematic review of intravenous ketamine for postoperative analgesia.

            Perioperative intravenous ketamine may be a useful addition in pain management regimens. Previous systematic reviews have included all methods of ketamine administration, and heterogeneity between studies has been substantial. This study addresses this issue by narrowing the inclusion criteria, using a random effects model, and performing subgroup analysis to determine the specific types of patients, surgery, and clinical indications which may benefit from perioperative ketamine administration. We included published studies from 1966 to 2010 which were randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled using intravenous ketamine (bolus or infusion) to decrease postoperative pain. Studies using any form of regional anesthesia were excluded. No limitation was placed on the ketamine dose, patient age, or language of publication. Ninety-one comparisons in seventy studies involving 4,701 patients met the inclusion criteria (2,652 in ketamine groups and 2,049 in placebo groups). Forty-seven of these studies were appropriate for evaluation in the core meta-analysis, and the remaining 23 studies were used to corroborate the results. A reduction in total opioid consumption and an increase in the time to first analgesic were observed across all studies (P < 0.001). The greatest efficacy was found for thoracic, upper abdominal, and major orthopedic surgical subgroups. Despite using less opioid, 25 out of 32 treatment groups (78%) experienced less pain than the placebo groups at some point postoperatively when ketamine was efficacious. This finding implies an improved quality of pain control in addition to decreased opioid consumption. Hallucinations and nightmares were more common with ketamine but sedation was not. When ketamine was efficacious for pain, postoperative nausea and vomiting was less frequent in the ketamine group. The dose-dependent role of ketamine analgesia could not be determined. Intravenous ketamine is an effective adjunct for postoperative analgesia. Particular benefit was observed in painful procedures, including upper abdominal, thoracic, and major orthopedic surgeries. The analgesic effect of ketamine was independent of the type of intraoperative opioid administered, timing of ketamine administration, and ketamine dose.
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              Magnesium sulfate reduces intra- and postoperative analgesic requirements.

              In a randomized, double-blind study with two parallel groups, we assessed the analgesic effect of perioperative magnesium sulfate administration in 46 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with total i.v. anesthesia. The patients received either magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg preoperatively and 8 mg.kg-1.h-1 intraoperatively or the same volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution i.v. Anesthesia was performed with propofol (2 mg/kg for induction, 6-8 mg.kg-1.h-1 for maintenance), fentanyl (3 micrograms/kg for induction), and vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg for intubation). Intraoperative pain was defined as an increase of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of more than 20% from baseline values after the induction of anesthesia and was treated with bolus fentanyl (1-2 micrograms/kg). Postoperative analgesia was achieved with fentanyl (0.5 microgram/kg) and evaluated using the pain visual analog scale for 4 h. During the intraoperative and postoperative periods, patients in the magnesium group required significantly less fentanyl than those in the control group (control group 0.089 +/- 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 versus magnesium group 0.058 +/- 0.01 microgram.kg-1.min-1; P < 0.05 and control group 0.021 +/- 0.013 microgram.kg-1.min-1 and magnesium group 0.0031 +/- 0.0018 microgram.kg-1.min-1; P < 0.01 for intraoperative and postoperative periods, respectively). We conclude that, in a clinical setting with almost identical levels of surgical stimulation, i.v. magnesium sulfate administration reduces intraoperative and postoperative analgesic requirements compared with isotonic sodium chloride solution administration. The perioperative administration of i.v. magnesium sulfate reduces intra- and postoperative analgesic requirements in patients with almost identical levels of surgical stimulus. Our results demonstrate that magnesium can be an adjuvant to perioperative analgesic management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                16 November 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 2937-2946
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [3 ]Biomedical Neuroscience Institute (BNI), Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [4 ]Centro de Investigación Clínica Avanzada (CICA), Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                [5 ]Departamento de Kinesiología, Facultad de Artes y Educación Física, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación , Santiago, Chile
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Verónica VarasDepartamento de Anestesiología y Medicina Perioperatoria, Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile , Santos Dumont 999, Santiago838 0456, ChileTel +56 2 29788221 Email vvaras@uchile.cl
                Article
                276710
                10.2147/JPR.S276710
                7678693
                © 2020 Varas et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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