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      Expression cloning and characterization of PREB (prolactin regulatory element binding), a novel WD motif DNA-binding protein with a capacity to regulate prolactin promoter activity.

      Molecular Endocrinology

      Transcription, Genetic, metabolism, genetics, Transcription Factors, Transcription Factor Pit-1, Trans-Activators, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Rats, physiology, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Prolactin, Pituitary Gland, Molecular Sequence Data, Humans, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors, Gene Library, Gene Dosage, Evolution, Molecular, DNA-Binding Proteins, Cloning, Molecular, Binding Sites, Base Sequence, Animals, Amino Acid Sequence

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          Previous studies have implied that a transcription factor(s) other than Pit-1 is involved in homeostatic regulation of PRL promoter activity via Pit-1-binding elements. One such element, 1P, was employed to clone from a rat pituitary cDNA expression library a novel 417-amino acid WD protein, designated PREB (PRL regulatory element binding) protein. PREB contains two PQ-rich potential transactivation domains, but no apparent DNA-binding motif, and exhibits sequence-specific binding to site 1P, to a site nonidentical to that for Pit-1. The PREB gene (or a related gene) is conserved, as an apparently single copy, in rat, human, fly, and yeast. A single approximately 1.9-kb PREB transcript accumulates in GH3 rat pituitary cells, to levels similar to Pit-1 mRNA. PREB transcripts were detected in all human tissues examined, but the observation of tissue-specific multiple transcript patterns suggests the possibility of tissue-specific alternative splicing. RT-PCR analysis of human brain tumor RNA samples suggested region-specific expression of PREB transcripts in brain. Western and immunocytochemical analysis implied that PREB accumulates specifically in GH3 cell nuclei. Transient transfection employing PREB-negative C6 rat glial cells showed that PREB is as active as, and additive with, Pit-1 in transactivation of a PRL promoter construct, and that PREB, but not Pit-1, can mediate transcriptional activation by protein kinase A (PKA). Expression in GH3 cells of a GAL4-PREB fusion protein both strongly transactivated a 5XGAL indicator construct and yielded a further stimulation of expression of this construct by coexpressed PKA, implying that PREB can mediate both basal and PKA-stimulated transcriptional responses in pituitary cells. These observations imply that PREB will prove to play a significant transcriptional regulatory role, both in the pituitary and in other organs in which transcripts of its gene are expressed.

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