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      Long-Term Erythropoietin Therapy Does Not Affect Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitor Levels, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hemodialyzed Patients

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          Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play an important role in the atherosclerosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has become widely used to treat anemic hemodialyzed (HD) patients; however, an increased mortality has been reported for HD patients with cardiovascular disease when randomly assigned to normal hematocrit by EPO. Therefore, we conducted a study examining the effect of EPO on MMPs/TIMPs system, oxidative stress and inflammation in these patients. Methods: Assessment of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were performed in 20 stable HD patients and 15 healthy controls. Additionally, the effects of EPO on malondialdehyde (MDA) – a marker of SOX and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels – as a marker of inflammation were also investigated. Of the 20 patients, 10 were receiving EPO therapy [HD-EPO(+)] for 12 months or more and 10 were not receiving EPO therapy [HD-EPO(–)]. Both groups were not receiving iron supplementation. Results: All parameters, with the exception of MMP-9, were lower in the healthy subjects compared with the HD subjects, irrespective of EPO administration. There was no difference in MMPs/TIMPs system, MDA and C-reactive levels between HD-EPO(+) and HD-EPO(–) patients. Conclusion:Erythropoietin therapy did not influence MMPs/TIMPs system, inflammation, or SOX in a low-risk HD patient population, in the absence of concomitant iron supplementation and mean Hg levels within target.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and matrix degrading activity in vulnerable regions of human atherosclerotic plaques.

           Z Galis,  P. Libby,  M Lark (1994)
          Dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism may contribute to vascular remodeling during the development and complication of human atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade ECM components in human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 30) and in uninvolved arterial specimens (n = 11). We studied members of all three MMP classes (interstitial collagenase, MMP-1; gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9; and stromelysin, MMP-3) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs 1 and 2) by immunocytochemistry, zymography, and immunoprecipitation. Normal arteries stained uniformly for 72-kD gelatinase and TIMPs. In contrast, plaques' shoulders and regions of foam cell accumulation displayed locally increased expression of 92-kD gelatinase, stromelysin, and interstitial collagenase. However, the mere presence of MMP does not establish their catalytic capacity, as the zymogens lack activity, and TIMPs may block activated MMPs. All plaque extracts contained activated forms of gelatinases determined zymographically and by degradation of 3H-collagen type IV. To test directly whether atheromata actually contain active matrix-degrading enzymes in situ, we devised a method which allows the detection and microscopic localization of MMP enzymatic activity directly in tissue sections. In situ zymography revealed gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activity in frozen sections of atherosclerotic but not of uninvolved arterial tissues. The MMP inhibitors, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, as well as recombinant TIMP-1, reduced these activities which colocalized with regions of increased immunoreactive MMP expression, i.e., the shoulders, core, and microvasculature of the plaques. Focal overexpression of activated MMP may promote destabilization and complication of atherosclerotic plaques and provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
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            Plasma concentrations and genetic variation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease.

            Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion by macrophages and other inflammatory cells accelerates atherosclerotic progression and destabilizes vulnerable plaque in animal models. However, epidemiological data evaluating the prognostic impact of circulating concentrations and functional genetic variations of MMP-9 are lacking. In a prospective study of 1127 patients with documented coronary artery disease, we measured baseline plasma MMP-9 levels and determined the MMP-9/C-1562T and MMP-9/R279Q genotypes. During the follow-up period (mean of 4.1 years), 97 patients died from cardiovascular (CV) causes. Median concentrations of MMP-9 were significantly higher among patients who experienced a fatal CV event than among those who did not (62.2 versus 47.8 ng/mL; P<0.0001). The crude hazard risk ratio of CV death associated with increasing quartiles of MMP-9 was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8; P<0.0001), and after adjustment for clinical and therapeutic confounders, it was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; P=0.005). Additional adjustment for highly sensitive CRP, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, and interleukin-18 revealed a hazard risk ratio to 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.6; P=0.15). The T allele of the C-1562T polymorphism was associated with increased MMP-9 levels in a fairly codominant fashion (P=0.004). Although none of the polymorphisms was significantly related with future CV death, there was a significant association (P=0.02) between the R279Q polymorphism and CV events in patients with stable angina. Plasma MMP-9 concentration was identified as a novel predictor of CV mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Whether it provides independent prognostic information compared with other inflammatory markers will have to be additionally assessed.
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              Clinical and echocardiographic disease in patients starting end-stage renal disease therapy


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                May 2007
                23 March 2007
                : 27
                : 3
                : 221-225
                aDepartment of Nephrology and Clinical Transplantation and bPharmacodynamics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland
                101191 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:221–225
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 20, Pages: 5
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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