Background: Anemia is common in hemodialysis patients, and improvement in anemia management is possible with the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs. The aim of this study is to improve anemia management in chronic hemodialysis patients using CQI. Methods: Ninety hemodialysis patients in our single center were enrolled in the study. The patients were followed up from January 2004 to October 2005. The CQI team-oriented approach was driven by a process called the ‘FOCUS-PDCA cycle plan’ (find, organize, clarify, uncover, start, plan, do, check and act). Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were monitored periodically. Results: By implementation of the CQI program, the proportion of patients with Hb ≧110 g/l increased from 42.2 to 60.0% (p < 0.05), and the Hb level increased from 101.2 ± 18.05 to 110.4 ± 14.23 g/l (p < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with an adequate iron status increased from 28.0 to 53.3% (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The CQI program is a useful method in the management of anemia in hemodialysis patients.