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      10-Gingerol Enhances the Effect of Taxol in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Targeting ADRB2 Signaling


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          Although paclitaxel is widely used in cancer treatment, severe side effects and drug resistance limit its clinical use. 10-gingerol (10-G) is a natural compound isolated from ginger, which displays anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. However, the chemotherapy-sensitization effect of 10-G on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been fully clarified. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of 10-G on the paclitaxel sensitivity in TNBC, and its underlying mechanism.


          The study was determined through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cell viability and proliferation were detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and colony formation. To detect cell apoptosis, flow cytometry and TUNEL were used. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The molecular docking and gene knockout were corroborated by interactions between 10-G and adrenoceptor Beta 2 (ADRB2). The body weight of mice, histopathology and organs (kidney and spleen) coefficients were used to monitor the drug toxicities.


          In vitro, 10-G increased the sensitivity of TNBC cells to paclitaxel, and could synergistically promote the apoptosis of TNBC cells induced by paclitaxel. In combination with molecular docking and lentivirus knockdown studies, ADRB2 was identified as a 10-G binding protein. 10-G inhibited ADRB2 by binding to the active site of ADRB2. Knockdown of ADRB2 reduces the proliferation activity of TNBC cells but also attenuates the sensitizing effects of 10-G to paclitaxel. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that 10-G played an anti-proliferation and chemotherapy-sensitizing role by inhibiting the ADRB2/ERK signal. Toxicity evaluation showed that 10-G would not increase hepatorenal toxicity with paclitaxel.


          This data suggests that 10-G may be used as a new chemotherapeutic synergist in combination with paclitaxel to enhance anticancer activity. The potential value of ADRB2 as a target for improving chemotherapy sensitivity was also emphasized.

          Most cited references43

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          Cancer Statistics, 2021

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence. Incidence data (through 2017) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2018) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2021, 1,898,160 new cancer cases and 608,570 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. After increasing for most of the 20th century, the cancer death rate has fallen continuously from its peak in 1991 through 2018, for a total decline of 31%, because of reductions in smoking and improvements in early detection and treatment. This translates to 3.2 million fewer cancer deaths than would have occurred if peak rates had persisted. Long-term declines in mortality for the 4 leading cancers have halted for prostate cancer and slowed for breast and colorectal cancers, but accelerated for lung cancer, which accounted for almost one-half of the total mortality decline from 2014 to 2018. The pace of the annual decline in lung cancer mortality doubled from 3.1% during 2009 through 2013 to 5.5% during 2014 through 2018 in men, from 1.8% to 4.4% in women, and from 2.4% to 5% overall. This trend coincides with steady declines in incidence (2.2%-2.3%) but rapid gains in survival specifically for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For example, NSCLC 2-year relative survival increased from 34% for persons diagnosed during 2009 through 2010 to 42% during 2015 through 2016, including absolute increases of 5% to 6% for every stage of diagnosis; survival for small cell lung cancer remained at 14% to 15%. Improved treatment accelerated progress against lung cancer and drove a record drop in overall cancer mortality, despite slowing momentum for other common cancers.
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            Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action.

            Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, because taken alone, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent preventive effects. Work performed by our group and others has shown that fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. We proposed that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables are responsible for these potent antioxidant and anticancer activities and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods. This explains why no single antioxidant can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables to achieve the health benefits. The evidence suggests that antioxidants or bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption, not from expensive dietary supplements. We believe that a recommendation that consumers eat 5 to 10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily is an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health.
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              Advances in the systemic treatment of triple-negative breast cancer

              Triple-negative breast cancer constitutes a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are often aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Molecular characterization, while not a standard of care, can further subtype triple-negative breast cancer and provide insight into prognostication and behaviour. Optimal chemotherapy regimens have yet to be established; however, there have been advances in the systemic treatment of triple-negative breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. In this review, we discuss evidence for the potential benefit of neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, adjuvant combination chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel, and BRCA mutation–directed therapy in the metastatic setting. The role for adjuvant capecitabine in patients who do not achieve a pathologic complete response with neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reviewed. Future directions and data concerning novel targeted agents are reviewed, including the most recent data on parp [poly (adp-ribose) polymerase] inhibitors, antiandrogen agents, and immunotherapy.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                20 January 2023
                : 17
                : 129-142
                [1 ]The Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Breast, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510120, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Nanfang Hospital Baiyun Branch , Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510000, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]The First People’s Hospital of Shaoguan , Shaoguan, Guangdong, 512099, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qianjun Chen, Department of Breast, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine , 111 Dade Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510102, People’s Republic of China, Email cqj55@163.com
                Hai Lu, The First People’s Hospital of Shaoguan , No. 3, South Dongdi Road, Shaoguan, 512099, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 15622187291, Email hysa1985@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2023 Liang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 07 October 2022
                : 22 December 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 43, Pages: 14
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                Funded by: China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100002858;
                Funded by: Sponsor: Qianjun Chen, Hai Lu;
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81974571) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No.2020M682683) (Sponsor: Qianjun Chen, Hai Lu).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                triple-negative breast cancer,combined therapies,10-gingerol,paclitaxel,adrenoceptor beta 2


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