In addition to altered gene expression, pathological cytoskeletal dynamics in the axon are another key intrinsic barrier for axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we showed that knocking out myosin IIA/B in retinal ganglion cells alone either before or after optic nerve crush induced marked and sustained optic nerve regeneration. Combined Lin28 overexpression and myosin IIA/B knockout led to synergistic promoting effect and long-distance axon regeneration. Immunostaining, RNA-seq and western blot analyses revealed that myosin II deletion did not affect known axon regeneration signaling pathways or the expression of regeneration associated genes. Instead, it abolished the retraction bulb formation and significantly enhanced the axon extension efficiency. The study provided clear evidence that directly targeting neuronal cytoskeleton was sufficient to induce strong CNS axon regeneration, and combining gene expression in the soma and modified cytoskeletal dynamics in the axon was a promising approach for long-distance CNS axon regeneration.