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      The association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and potential drug target in prostate cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review

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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      prostate cancer, CXCR4, CXCL12, prognosis, metastasis

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          Abstract

          CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis and literature review to evaluate the association of CXCR4 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). A detailed literature search was made in Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed independently. Analysis of pooled data was performed using Review Manager 5.2. Odds ratio (OR) with corresponding confidence intervals were calculated and summarized. The meta-analysis included a total of eleven studies and 630 patients. The rate of CXCR4 protein expression in PCa was significantly higher than in nonmalignant prostate tissues (OR =35.71, P<0.00001). The expression of CXCR4 protein was not significantly associated with Gleason score ( P=0.73). However, the frequency of CXCR4 protein expression was significantly higher in T3–4 stage than in T1–2 stage of PCa (OR =2.35, P=0.001). The expression of CXCR4 protein was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node and bone metastasis of PCa: for lymph node metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 5.07 and P=0.0003, and for bone metastasis positive versus negative, OR was 7.03 and P=0.003. Cancer-specific survival of patients with PCa was significantly associated with CXCR4 protein expression, and the pooled Hazard ratio was 0.24 and P=0.002. In conclusion, the high expression of CXCR4 protein is a diagnostic biomarker of PCa, and it is significantly associated with T stages. The increased expression of CXCR4 protein is significantly associated with lymph nodes or bone metastasis, and CXCR4 is a poor prognosis predictor for patients with PCa. Taken together, our findings indicate that CXCR4 could be a target not only for the development of therapeutic intervention but also for the noninvasive monitoring of PCa progression.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Chemokines: a new classification system and their role in immunity.

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            Autocrine TGF-beta and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling drives the evolution of tumor-promoting mammary stromal myofibroblasts.

            Much interest is currently focused on the emerging role of tumor-stroma interactions essential for supporting tumor progression. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), frequently present in the stroma of human breast carcinomas, include a large number of myofibroblasts, a hallmark of activated fibroblasts. These fibroblasts have an ability to substantially promote tumorigenesis. However, the precise cellular origins of CAFs and the molecular mechanisms by which these cells evolve into tumor-promoting myofibroblasts remain unclear. Using a coimplantation breast tumor xenograft model, we show that resident human mammary fibroblasts progressively convert into CAF myofibroblasts during the course of tumor progression. These cells increasingly acquire two autocrine signaling loops, mediated by TGF-β and SDF-1 cytokines, which both act in autostimulatory and cross-communicating fashions. These autocrine-signaling loops initiate and maintain the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and the concurrent tumor-promoting phenotype. Collectively, these findings indicate that the establishment of the self-sustaining TGF-β and SDF-1 autocrine signaling gives rise to tumor-promoting CAF myofibroblasts during tumor progression. This autocrine-signaling mechanism may prove to be an attractive therapeutic target to block the evolution of tumor-promoting CAFs.
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              The CXC chemokine SDF-1 is the ligand for LESTR/fusin and prevents infection by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1.

              A putative chemokine receptor that we previously cloned and termed LESTR has recently been shown to function as a co-receptor (termed fusin) for lymphocyte-tropic HIV-1 strains. Cells expressing CD4 became permissive to infection with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1 strains of the syncytium-inducing phenotype after transfection with LESTR/fusin complementary DNA. We report here the indentification of a human chemokine of the CXC type, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), as the natural ligand for LESTR/fusin, and we propose the term CXCR-4 for this receptor, in keeping with the new chemokine-receptor nomenclature. SDF-1 activates Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with CXCR-4 cDNA as well as blood leukocytes and lymphocytes. In cell lines expressing CXCR-4 and CD4, and in blood lymphocytes, SDF-1 is a powerful inhibitor of infection by lymphocyte-tropic HIV-1 strains, whereas the CC chemokines RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta, which were shown previously to prevent infection with primary, monocyte-tropic viruses, are inactive. In combination with CC chemokines, which block the infection with monocyte/macrophage-tropic viruses, SDF-1 could help to decrease virus load and prevent the emergence of the syncytium-inducing viruses which are characteristic of the late stages of AIDS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                07 September 2015
                : 9
                : 5115-5122
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tie Zhong, Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 157 West Road, Xian, Shaanxi Province 710004, People’s Republic of China, Email tiexhong2014@ 123456yeah.net
                Article
                dddt-9-5115
                10.2147/DDDT.S82475
                4567179
                © 2015 Chen and Zhong. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                metastasis, prognosis, cxcl12, cxcr4, prostate cancer

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