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      Biodiversity Conservation: An Imperial Need in Combatting Pandemic and Healthcare Emergencies

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          Abstract

          The advent of COVID-19 has infected millions of people causing healthcare emergencies worldwide. Biologists and environmentalists have always stressed on the impact of habitat fragmentation, deforestation, and animal poaching on human health. The outbreak of various zoonotic scourges has incremented the levels of risk in human population because of direct and indirect interaction with human chain. Human health is directly associated with animal health and is one of the important part of an ecosystem, the balance of which is disrupted due to anthropogenic activities which has disrupted an ecological balance due to which biodiversity is greatly affected and is reducing at a faster pace promoting a spread of diseases through animals to humans. COVID-19 is a serious concern that puts human life to risk, however, strategies like Global Lockdown which is referred as the period of “Great Pause” has helped to recover rare species of Flora and Fauna with reduced pollution levels, cleaner air and water. In order to quell the further on-spread of pandemic or any other avant-guarded health emergency, biodiversity shall be preserved. This chapter highlights the vitality of conserving biodiversity to renounce the healthcare challenges addressing the scenario of novel coronavirus.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Digital technology and COVID-19

          The past decade has allowed the development of a multitude of digital tools. Now they can be used to remediate the COVID-19 outbreak.
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            A Review of the Health Benefits of Greenness.

            Researchers are increasingly exploring how neighborhood greenness, or vegetation, may affect health behaviors and outcomes. Greenness may influence health by promoting physical activity and social contact; decreasing stress; and mitigating air pollution, noise, and heat exposure. Greenness is generally measured using satellite-based vegetation indices or land-use databases linked to participants' addresses. In this review, we found fairly strong evidence for a positive association between greenness and physical activity, and a less consistent negative association between greenness and body weight. Research suggests greenness is protective against adverse mental health outcomes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, though most studies were limited by cross-sectional or ecological design. There is consistent evidence that greenness exposure during pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, though findings for other birth outcomes are less conclusive. Future research should follow subjects prospectively, differentiate between greenness quantity and quality, and identify mediators and effect modifiers of greenness-health associations.
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              Assessing nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels as a contributing factor to the coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality rate

               Yaron Ogen (2020)
              Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an ambient trace-gas as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. Long-term exposure to NO2 may cause a wide spectrum of severe health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, heart and cardiovascular diseases and even death. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to NO2 and fatality caused by the coronavirus. The Sentinel-5P is used for mapping the tropospheric NO2 distribution and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for evaluating the atmospheric capability to disperse the pollution. The spatial analysis has been conducted on a regional scale and combined with the number of death cases taken from 66 administrative regions in Italy, Spain, France and Germany. Results show that out of the 4443 fatality cases, 3487 (78%) were in five regions located in north Italy and central Spain. Additionally, the same five regions show the highest NO2 concentrations combined with downwards airflow which prevent an efficient dispersion of air pollution. These results indicate that the long-term exposure to this pollutant may be one of the most important contributors to fatality caused by the COVID-19 in these regions and maybe across the whole world.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cchakrabarty@bitmesra.ac.in
                swapnilaroy@gmail.com
                susmita.sharma4@nitm.ac.in
                trantienanhvimaru@gmail.com
                ummeabiha04@gmail.com
                Sparshphtl26@gmail.com
                sshukla3@amity.edu
                Journal
                978-3-030-66490-9
                10.1007/978-3-030-66490-9
                The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Green Societies
                The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Green Societies
                Environmental Sustainability
                978-3-030-66489-3
                978-3-030-66490-9
                23 March 2021
                : 323-347
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.418391.6, ISNI 0000 0001 1015 3164, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, , Birla Institute of Technology, ; Mesra, Jharkhand India
                [2 ]Applied Science, KK University, Nepura, Bihar Sharif, India
                [3 ]GRID grid.419487.7, ISNI 0000 0000 9191 860X, Department of Civil Engineering, , National Institute of Technology, ; Shillong, Meghalaya India
                [4 ]GRID grid.444926.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0498 6591, Department of Marine Engineering, , Vietnam Maritime University, ; Haiphong City, Vietnam
                GRID grid.444644.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1805 0217, Applied Plant Biotechnology Research Lab, , Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, ; Noida, UP India
                Article
                14
                10.1007/978-3-030-66490-9_14
                7984820
                © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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                © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

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