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      Clinical review: Specific aspects of acute renal failure in cancer patients

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          Abstract

          Acute renal failure (ARF) in cancer patients is a dreadful complication that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Moreover, ARF may preclude optimal cancer treatment by requiring a decrease in chemotherapy dosage or by contraindicating potentially curative treatment. The pathways leading to ARF in cancer patients are common to the development of ARF in other conditions. However, ARF may also develop due to etiologies arising from cancer treatment, such as nephrotoxic chemotherapy agents or the disease itself, including post-renal obstruction, compression or infiltration, and metabolic or immunological mechanisms. This article reviews specific renal disease in cancer patients, providing a comprehensive overview of the causes of ARF in this setting, such as treatment toxicity, acute renal failure in the setting of myeloma or bone marrow transplantation.

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          Veno-occlusive disease of the liver and multiorgan failure after bone marrow transplantation: a cohort study of 355 patients.

          To determine the incidence and clinical course of veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) after bone marrow transplantation and to analyze risk factors for severe VOD. Cohort study of 355 consecutive patients. A bone marrow transplantation center. Each patient was prospectively evaluated for VOD, and many risk factors for severe VOD were analyzed using logistic regression models. The relation of VOD to renal and cardiopulmonary failure was analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models. Veno-occlusive disease developed in 190 of 355 patients (54%; 95% CI, 48% to 59%): Fifty-four patients had severe VOD and 136 had mild or moderate VOD. Independent variables derived from a multivariate model for predicting severe VOD included elevated transaminase values before transplantation (relative risk, 4.6; P < 0.0001); vancomycin therapy during cytoreductive therapy (relative risk, 2.9; P = 0.003); cytoreductive therapy with a high-dose regimen (relative risk, 2.8; P = 0.01); acyclovir therapy before transplantation (relative risk, 4.8; P = 0.02); mismatched or unrelated donor marrow (relative risk, 2.4; P = 0.02); and previous radiation therapy to the abdomen (relative risk, 2.2; P = 0.04). Vancomycin therapy was a marker for persistent fever. Multiorgan failure was more frequent among patients with VOD and usually followed the onset of liver disease. Veno-occlusive disease, which developed in 54% of bone marrow transplant recipients, is frequently associated with renal and cardiopulmonary failure. Pretransplant transaminase elevations, use of high-dose cytoreductive therapy, and persistent fever during cytoreductive therapy are independent predictors of severe VOD.
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            Prognosis for long-term survival and renal recovery in critically ill patients with severe acute renal failure: a population-based study

            Introduction Severe acute renal failure (sARF) is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and use of healthcare resources; however, its precise epidemiology and long-term outcomes have not been well described in a non-specified population. Methods Population-based surveillance was conducted among all adult residents of the Calgary Health Region (population 1 million) admitted to multidisciplinary and cardiovascular surgical intensive care units between May 1 1999 and April 30 2002. Clinical records were reviewed and outcome at 1 year was assessed. Results sARF occurred in 240 patients (11.0 per 100,000 population/year). Rates were highest in males and older patients (≥65 years of age). Risk factors for development of sARF included previous heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, connective tissue disease, chronic renal dysfunction, and alcoholism. The annual mortality rate was 7.3 per 100,000 population with rates highest in males and those ≥65 years. The 28-day, 90-day, and 1-year case-fatality rates were 51%, 60%, and 64%, respectively. Increased Charlson co-morbidity index, presence of liver disease, higher APACHE II score, septic shock, and need for continuous renal replacement therapy were independently associated with death at 1 year. Renal recovery occurred in 78% (68/87) of survivors at 1 year. Conclusion sARF is common and males, older patients, and those with underlying medical conditions are at greatest risk. Although the majority of patients with sARF will die, most survivors will become independent from renal replacement therapy within a year.
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              Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome.

              Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncologic emergency that is characterized by severe electrolyte abnormalities and, frequently, by acute renal failure. The syndrome typically occurs in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies, most often after initiation of treatment. The pathophysiology involves massive tumor cell lysis resulting in the release of large amounts of potassium, phosphate, and uric acid. Deposition of uric acid and calcium phosphate crystals in the renal tubules may lead to acute renal failure, which is often exacerbated by concomitant intravascular volume depletion. The kidney normally excretes these products, and consequently preexisting renal failure exacerbates the metabolic derangements of tumor lysis syndrome. Standard treatment aims to clear high plasma levels of potassium, uric acid, and phosphorus; correct acidosis; and prevent acute renal failure by way of aggressive intravenous hydration; lowering serum potassium levels; use of allopurinol; urinary alkalinization; or renal replacement therapy (if necessary). Allopurinol is the standard of care for treating hyperuricemia of malignancy, but is associated with drawbacks. Recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase), which recently became available in the United States, provides a safe and effective alternative to allopurinol for lowering uric acid levels and preventing uric acid nephropathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central (London )
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                2006
                11 April 2006
                : 10
                : 2
                : 211
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Saint-Louis University Hospital, Medical ICU, Paris, France
                Article
                cc4907
                10.1186/cc4907
                1550893
                16677413
                Copyright © 2006 BioMed Central Ltd
                Categories
                Review

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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