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      Peripheral blood biological markers for early screening in children with autism spectrum disorder

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          Abstract

          Objective To investigate the specifity of amyloid precursor protein (APP), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in peripheral blood in children with autism spectrum disorder, so as to explore the biomarkers for early screening of ASD and its relationship with the severity of ASD.

          Methods A total of 41 children diagnosed with autism from January to December 2019 were enrolled in the ASD group. Meanwhile, 41 healthy children with normal growth and development who were examined in the same period were selected as control group. And the sera total sAPP, sAPP-α, sAPP-β, BDNF and GABA of all participants were tested by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and were compared between the two groups.

          Results The serum sAPP level in ASD group (2 132.98±333.28 ng/mL) was higher than control group (1 734.76±357.97 ng/mL), the serum sAPP-α level (335.11±33.87 pg/mL) was higher than control group (274.84±32.12 pg/mL) and the serum GABA level (4.17±0.95 µmol/L) was lower than control group (6.35±0.84 µmol/L). GABA level (4.17±0.95 µmol/L) was lower than that of control group (6.35±0.84 µmol/L), the differences were statistically significant ( t = 3.92, 4.25, −7.27, P<0.05). In addition, the serum GABA level in children with severe ASD (3.48±0.77 µmol/L) was lower than children with mild to moderate (4.94±0.98 µmol/L). The difference was significant ( t = −3.31, P <0.05). ROC curve showed that total sAPP ( AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.87), sAPP-α ( AUC = 0.77, 95% CI =0.67–0.87), and GABA ( OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90–0.93) had diagnostic efficacy for ASD ( P<0.05), among which the AUC of GABA was the largest (0.95) and its sensitivity (85.65%) and specificity (80.76%) were the highest. The results of binary Logistic regression showed that the abnormal expression of sAPP-α ( OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00–1.07) and GABA ( OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.00–0.32) were associated with risk for ASD ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion Considering the specific change of total sAPP, sAPP-α and GABA in peripheral blood in ASD children, total sAPP, sAPP-α and GABA can be considered as promising biomarkers in the early diagnosis of ASD, among which GABA has the highest sensitivity and specificity.

          Abstract

          【摘要】 目的 研究淀粉样前体蛋白(APP)家族(总sAPP、sAPP-α、sAPP-β)、脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)及氨基丁 酸(GABA)在自闭症谱系障碍与正常儿童外周血水平差异, 探讨自闭症早期筛査的生物学标记及其与自闭症严重程度的 相关性。 方法 选取2019年1—12月在江苏大学附属医院被诊断为自闭症的41名儿童为自闭症组, 以同期在该院体检 生长发育正常的41名健康儿童为对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附试验检测两组儿童血清总sAPP、sAPP-α、sAPP-β、BDNF及 GABA水平。 结果 自闭症组儿童血清总sAPP, sAPP-α水平(2 132.98±333.28 ng/mL, 335.11±33.87 pg/mL)髙于对照组 (1 734.76±357.97 ng/mL, 274.84±32.12 pg/mL), GABA 水平(4.17±0.95 µmol/L)低于对照组(6.35±0.84 µmol/L), 差异均 有统计学意义( t值分别为3.92, 4.25, −7.27, P值均<0.05);且GABA在重度自闭症患儿外周血水平(3.48±0.77 µmol/L)低 于轻-中度患儿(4.94±0.98 µmol/L), 差异有统计学意义( t = −3.31, P<0.05); R0C曲线显示, 总sAPP ( AUC为0.77, 95% CI = 0.66~0.87)、sAPP-α ( AUC 为 0.77, 95% CI = 0.67~0.87)及 GABA ( AUC 为 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90~0.93)具有一定的诊断效 能( P值均<0.05), 其中GABA曲线下面积最大(0.95), 其检测灵敏度(85.65%)及特异性(80.76%)最髙。二元Logistic回 归分析显示, sAPP-α ( OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00~1.07)及 GABA ( OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.00~0.32)表达水平异常是自闭症发生 的相关因素( P值均<0.05)。 结论 外周血总sAPP、sAPP-α及GABA表达水平在自闭症儿童具有特异性, 可以作为疾病 筛査的生物学指标, 其中GABA敏感度及特异度最髙。

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CJSH
          Chinese Journal of School Health
          Chinese Journal of School Health (China )
          1000-9817
          01 June 2022
          01 June 2022
          : 43
          : 6
          : 916-919
          Affiliations
          [1] 1Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Jiang Su University, Zhenjiang (212000), Jiangsu Province, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: LU Hongyan, E-mail: lhy5154@ 123456163.com
          Article
          j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.06.028
          10.16835/j.cnki.1000-9817.2022.06.028
          49675d15-fa57-4813-b910-6adcc5b0a92d
          © 2022 Chinese Journal of School Health

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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          Self URI (journal-page): http://www.cjsh.org.cn
          Categories
          Journal Article

          Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pediatrics,Nutrition & Dietetics,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
          Autistic disorder,Biological markers,Regression analysis,Early diagnosis,Child

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