Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established inflammation marker associated with cardiovascular risk. However, its relationship with chitotriosidase activity, a novel marker of activated macrophages highly expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques, is unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine if serum chitotriosidase activity predicts the risk of new coronary events, and to analyze its relationship with CRP. Methods: Chitotriosidase activity and genotype, and high-sensitivity CRP were measured at baseline in 133 middle-aged men with stable coronary heart disease, who were followed for the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for a mean of 4 years. We studied the value of these proteins in predicting the risk of new cardiovascular events. Results: Serum chitotriosidase activity was higher in the group of subjects with a prespecified major event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization procedures and death from cardiovascular causes) than in the group of subjects without event, 116 ± 30.9 nmol/ml·h versus 74.2 ± 5.69 nmol/ml·h, respectively (p = 0.042). The baseline values of chitotriosidase activity and CRP did not correlate (R = 0.104, p = 0.266), but both parameters were related to a reduction of event-free survival in the Cox regression analysis, with relative risks of 2.61 (p = 0.060) and 2.56 (p = 0.019), respectively. Chitotriosidase activity seems to be a better marker for new events occurring after 2 years of follow-up than in the first 2 years. Both markers had similar predictive values, and their sensitivity (64%) and negative predictive value (84%) were improved when combined. Conclusions: Our results suggest that serum chitotriosidase activity predicts the risk of new cardiovascular events in the following 4 years. This new cardiovascular risk marker is independent of CRP and, when combined, the prediction of the risk of new cardiovascular events and the identification of a lower risk group seem to improve.