The deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been considered as a risk factor for IgA nephropathy and for its progression to end-stage renal failure. However, results from various studies are conflicting. We had genotyped the ACE gene in 100 patients with IgA nephropathy, 32 of whom were in end-stage renal failure and in 90 normal adult subjects. All DD cases were subjected to confirmation with a second PCR, performed with the insert-specific forward primer. Similar genotype frequencies were obtained for the 90 normal control subjects (II: 47%, ID: 44%, DD: 9%); for the 68 patients not in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) (II: 47%, ID: 46%, DD: 7%) and for the 32 patients with ESRF (II: 53%, ID: 38%, DD: 9%). The genotype frequencies in all 3 series are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These results suggest that ACE gene polymorphism is not a risk factor for IgA nephropathy and is not a predictor for its progression. Definitive proof of association between ACE gene polymorphism and progression in IgA nephropathy will require a prospective study, controlled for important risk factors, with adequate patient numbers and facility for confirming DD genotypes.