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      Overview of methods for characterization and visualization of a protein–protein interaction network in a multi-omics integration context

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          Abstract

          At the heart of the cellular machinery through the regulation of cellular functions, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) have a significant role. PPIs can be analyzed with network approaches. Construction of a PPI network requires prediction of the interactions. All PPIs form a network. Different biases such as lack of data, recurrence of information, and false interactions make the network unstable. Integrated strategies allow solving these different challenges. These approaches have shown encouraging results for the understanding of molecular mechanisms, drug action mechanisms, and identification of target genes. In order to give more importance to an interaction, it is evaluated by different confidence scores. These scores allow the filtration of the network and thus facilitate the representation of the network, essential steps to the identification and understanding of molecular mechanisms. In this review, we will discuss the main computational methods for predicting PPI, including ones confirming an interaction as well as the integration of PPIs into a network, and we will discuss visualization of these complex data.

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          Cytoscape: a software environment for integrated models of biomolecular interaction networks.

          Cytoscape is an open source software project for integrating biomolecular interaction networks with high-throughput expression data and other molecular states into a unified conceptual framework. Although applicable to any system of molecular components and interactions, Cytoscape is most powerful when used in conjunction with large databases of protein-protein, protein-DNA, and genetic interactions that are increasingly available for humans and model organisms. Cytoscape's software Core provides basic functionality to layout and query the network; to visually integrate the network with expression profiles, phenotypes, and other molecular states; and to link the network to databases of functional annotations. The Core is extensible through a straightforward plug-in architecture, allowing rapid development of additional computational analyses and features. Several case studies of Cytoscape plug-ins are surveyed, including a search for interaction pathways correlating with changes in gene expression, a study of protein complexes involved in cellular recovery to DNA damage, inference of a combined physical/functional interaction network for Halobacterium, and an interface to detailed stochastic/kinetic gene regulatory models.
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            STRING v11: protein–protein association networks with increased coverage, supporting functional discovery in genome-wide experimental datasets

            Abstract Proteins and their functional interactions form the backbone of the cellular machinery. Their connectivity network needs to be considered for the full understanding of biological phenomena, but the available information on protein–protein associations is incomplete and exhibits varying levels of annotation granularity and reliability. The STRING database aims to collect, score and integrate all publicly available sources of protein–protein interaction information, and to complement these with computational predictions. Its goal is to achieve a comprehensive and objective global network, including direct (physical) as well as indirect (functional) interactions. The latest version of STRING (11.0) more than doubles the number of organisms it covers, to 5090. The most important new feature is an option to upload entire, genome-wide datasets as input, allowing users to visualize subsets as interaction networks and to perform gene-set enrichment analysis on the entire input. For the enrichment analysis, STRING implements well-known classification systems such as Gene Ontology and KEGG, but also offers additional, new classification systems based on high-throughput text-mining as well as on a hierarchical clustering of the association network itself. The STRING resource is available online at https://string-db.org/.
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              Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

              Proteins are essential to life, and understanding their structure can facilitate a mechanistic understanding of their function. Through an enormous experimental effort 1 – 4 , the structures of around 100,000 unique proteins have been determined 5 , but this represents a small fraction of the billions of known protein sequences 6 , 7 . Structural coverage is bottlenecked by the months to years of painstaking effort required to determine a single protein structure. Accurate computational approaches are needed to address this gap and to enable large-scale structural bioinformatics. Predicting the three-dimensional structure that a protein will adopt based solely on its amino acid sequence—the structure prediction component of the ‘protein folding problem’ 8 —has been an important open research problem for more than 50 years 9 . Despite recent progress 10 – 14 , existing methods fall far short of atomic accuracy, especially when no homologous structure is available. Here we provide the first computational method that can regularly predict protein structures with atomic accuracy even in cases in which no similar structure is known. We validated an entirely redesigned version of our neural network-based model, AlphaFold, in the challenging 14th Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP14) 15 , demonstrating accuracy competitive with experimental structures in a majority of cases and greatly outperforming other methods. Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm. AlphaFold predicts protein structures with an accuracy competitive with experimental structures in the majority of cases using a novel deep learning architecture.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Mol Biosci
                Front Mol Biosci
                Front. Mol. Biosci.
                Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-889X
                08 September 2022
                2022
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 Molecular Medicine Department , CHU de Québec Research Center , Université Laval , Québec, QC, Canada
                [2] 2 Digital Sciences Department , L'Oréal Advanced Research , Aulnay-sous-bois, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ornella Cominetti, Nestlé Research Center, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Bharat Mishra, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States

                Han Wang, Northeast Normal University, China

                *Correspondence: Arnaud Droit, arnaud.droit@ 123456crchuq.ulaval.ca

                This article was submitted to Metabolomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

                Article
                962799
                10.3389/fmolb.2022.962799
                9494275
                49752608-1418-46c9-a1fd-7df2c5466749
                Copyright © 2022 Robin, Bodein, Scott-Boyer, Leclercq, Périn and Droit.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Categories
                Molecular Biosciences
                Review

                interactome,biological network,computational prediction,integrated strategies,graphic view,protein-protein interaction

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