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      Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
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            The rise of graphene.

            Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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              Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene.

              We measured the elastic properties and intrinsic breaking strength of free-standing monolayer graphene membranes by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The force-displacement behavior is interpreted within a framework of nonlinear elastic stress-strain response, and yields second- and third-order elastic stiffnesses of 340 newtons per meter (N m(-1)) and -690 Nm(-1), respectively. The breaking strength is 42 N m(-1) and represents the intrinsic strength of a defect-free sheet. These quantities correspond to a Young's modulus of E = 1.0 terapascals, third-order elastic stiffness of D = -2.0 terapascals, and intrinsic strength of sigma(int) = 130 gigapascals for bulk graphite. These experiments establish graphene as the strongest material ever measured, and show that atomically perfect nanoscale materials can be mechanically tested to deformations well beyond the linear regime.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
                ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
                American Chemical Society (ACS)
                1944-8244
                1944-8252
                October 04 2017
                September 22 2017
                October 04 2017
                : 9
                : 39
                : 34456-34466
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, ‡Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, and §College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China
                Article
                10.1021/acsami.7b09891
                497e4a45-f8b2-40a4-bd19-dac47780e1b0
                © 2017
                History

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